1974

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Worli riots refers to the violence that occurred in the chawl in the Worli neighbourhood of Mumbai between January and April 1974.

1974
AuthorAastha Pherwani
ASSN37988
Published on22 May 2019
Co-Assn49561
EditorFaiyaz Khalid
Last Updates22/05/2019

January 1: The US government Supplemental Security Income (SSI) program, established by Congress in 1972, began providing new benefits for the aged, blind and disabled.

January 1:Nawab Akbar Shahbaz Khan Bugti (1927-2006), governor of Balochistan, Pakistan, resigned shortly after Bhutto launched an army operation in Balochistan. The army had deployed 100,000 men in Baluchistan and with the help of the Iranian air force killed large numbers of Baluchis.

January 1: Lee MacPhail took over as AL president, succeeding Joe Cronin 

January 1: With effect from this date the New Zealand government terminates all tariff preferences previously granted to South Africa.

January 2: President Nixon signed legislation requiring states to limit highway speeds to 55 mph. Federal speed limits were abolished in 1995. The legislation was conceived by Claude Brinegar (1926-2009), Nixon’s secretary of transportation.

January 3: Burma accepted its Constitution.

January 4: President Richard Nixon refuses to surrender 500 tapes and documents which have been subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.

January 9: Cambodian Government troops opened a drive to avert insurgent attack on Phnom Penh.

January 12: Libya & Tunisia announced they were merging as "Islamic Arab Republic”

January 17-January 19: China occupied the Paracel Islands following the Battle of Hoang Sea, a bloody skirmish with Vietnam.

January 18: Israel and Egypt signed a Separation of Forces Agreement.

January 18: Israel & Egypt sign weapons accord.

January 19: Belgium government of Leburton fell.

January 19: China and South Vietnam clash over the Paracel Islands, resulting in a Chinese victory.

January 20: Howard C. Ulrich was appointed by Gov. Ronald Reagan to serve as the chief of Caltrans and served from this day to Aug 8, 1975.

January 21: The U.S. Supreme Court decided that pregnant teachers could no longer be forced to take long leaves of absence.

January 26: Bülent Ecevit became Prime Minister of Turkey for the 1st time.

January 29: Kuwait announces 60 percent government participation in BP-Gulf concession.

January 30: G. Gordon Liddy is found guilty of Watergate charges.

January 30:USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

Law amendments

January 1: Commencement of Delhi Urban Art Commission Act, 1973.

January 25: Commencement of Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

January 14: Kevin Serge Durand in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada.

January 30: Christian Charles Philip Bale in Haverfordwest, Pembrokeshire, Wales.

Deathday/Demise

January 13: Salvador Novo (b.1904), gay Mexican writer, poet and official chronicler of Mexico City, died.

January 14: Josef Smrkovsky, Czechoslovakia parliament chairman, died at 62.

January 21: Jan Arends, Dutch poet/author, died at 48.

January 21: Lewis L Strauss, head US Atomic Energy Comm (1953-58), died at 78.

January 27: Georgios Grivas, Greek gen/oppos leader on Cyprus (EOKA), died at 75.

Legal News

February 1:Kuala Lumpur is declared a Federal Territory.

February 4: Provisional Irish Republican Army bomb exploded on a bus in West Yorkshire, England, carrying British Army soldiers and some of their family members.

February 5: John Murtha became the first Vietnam War veteran elected to the United States Congress.

February 5: John Murtha (1932-2010), became Pennsylvania’s Democratic representative following a special House election. He became the first Vietnam veteran to serve in Congress.

February 6: US House of Representatives began determining grounds for impeachment of President Richard Nixon.

February 7:Grenada gained independence from Britain (National Day).

February 7: UK Prime Minister Edward Heath called for a 'snap' general election in the midst of a protracted miners' strike.

February 7: The Symbionese Liberation Army claimed responsibility for the kidnapping of Patty Hearst, daughter of Randolph Hearst.

February 11: Henry Kissinger unveils Nixon Administration's seven-point "Project Independence" planed to make the U.S. energy independent.

February 11: Libya nationalised three US oil companies that had not agreed to 51 percent nationalisation in September.

February 12: Heads of state of Algeria, Egypt, Syria, and Saudi Arabia discuss oil strategy in view of the progress in Arab-Israeli disengagement.

February 12: U.S. District Court Judge Geoerge Bold rules that Native American tribes in Washington State were entitled to half of the legal salmon and steelhead catches, based on treaties signed by the tribes and the U.S. government.

February 17: Robert K. Preston, a disgruntled U.S. Army private, buzzed the White House with a stolen helicopter.

February 18: NASA launched Italian satellite San Marcos C-2 (235/843 km).

February 21: Israeli forces left Western Suez.

February 21: Yugoslavia adopted Constitution.

February 22: Ethiopian police shot demonstrators.

February 22: Samuel Byck attempted to hijack an airplane with the intent to crash it into the White House and assassinate President Nixon. He committed suicide when police stormed the plane.

February 24: Pakistan officially recognised Bangladesh.

February 27: US performed nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

February 28: Ethiopian government of Makonnen formed.

February 28: Britain’s Labor Party won the parliamentary election. No party had an overall majority resulting in a hung parliament. This lasted until elections in October.

February 28: Taiwan police shot into crowd.

February 28: US & Egypt re-formed diplomatic relations after 7 years.

Law amendments

-

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

February 10: Elizabeth Maresal Mitchell in Pittsfield, Massachusetts.

February 16: Mahershalalhashbaz Gilmore in Oakland, California.

Deathday/Demise

Anniversary

February 23: US Governor Jeb Bush (21) weds Philanthropist Columba Bush (20) in Austin, Texas.

Legal News

March : Bihar Movement was a movement initiated by students in Bihar in 1974 and led by the veteran Gandhian socialist Jayaprakash Narayan, against misrule and corruption in the Government of Bihar.

March 1 : A grand jury in Washington, DC, concluded that President Nixon was indeed involved in the Watergate cover-up.  7 people, including former Nixon White House aides H.R. Haldeman and John D. Ehrlichman, former Attorney General John Mitchell and former assistant Attorney General Robert Mardian, were indicted on charges of conspiring to obstruct justice in connection with the Watergate break-in. They were convicted the following January, although Mardian's conviction was later reversed. In 2005 Vanity Fair Magazine revealed that W. Mark Felt (91), former FBI official, was the Watergate whistleblower Deep Throat, who helped bring down Pres. Nixon.

March 2: In Spain Catalan activist Salvador Puig (b.1948) became the world’s last person to be garroted. He was executed by the Francoist regime after being tried by a military tribunal and found guilty of the death of a Spanish gendarme.

March 4: Harold Wilson, head of the Labor Party, replaced resigning Edward Heath as British premier. Wilson called elections for October and the Labor Party defeated the Conservatives, after which Margaret Thatcher replaced Heath as party leader (1975).

March 5: In Britain Roy Jenkins (1920-2003) began serving as Home Secretary under PM Harold Wilson. In his 23 months on the job he enacted reforms that included legalising homosexuality and abortion, legislating for no-fault divorce, banning racial discrimination and abolishing censorship in the theatre.

March 7: 1st general strike in Ethiopia.

March 9: Officer Hiroo Onoda (d.2014), the last Japanese soldier operating in the Philippines, surrendered, 29 years after World War II ended. The Japanese intelligence officer and WWII holdout, came out of hiding in fatigues patched many times over, on Lubang island in the Philippines on his 52nd birthday.

March 11: Iraq's "Law for Autonomy in the Area of Kurdistan" was promulgated. It stipulated that: "The Kurdish language shall be the official language of education for Kurds. Kurdish shall be the official language of education for the Kurds.”

March 12: Carlos Andres Perez (1922-2010) began serving as president of Venezuela and continued to 1979.

March 15: Brazilian president Garastazu Médici resigned.

March 15: In Brazil General Ernesto Geisel (1907-1996) became president and ruled for 5 years. He gradually ended political repression, lifted press censorship and allowed political exiles to return. Under his rule the foreign debt doubled to $43 billion.

March 17: Arab oil ministers, with the exception of Libya, announced the end the oil embargo on the US.

March 18 – Oil embargo crisis: Most OPEC nations end a 5-month oil embargo against the United States, Europe and Japan.

March 22: The Viet Cong proposed a new truce with the United States and South Vietnam, which includes general elections.

March 26: Romanian communist party named party leader Ceausescu President.

March 28: In Romania the position of President of the Republic was created especially for Nicolae Ceausescu, who is then named President for life by Grand National Assembly.

March 29 : In Ohio 8 National Guardsmen were indicted on charges stemming from the shooting deaths of 4 students at Kent State University. On Nov 8 the charges were dismissed.

Law amendments

March 13: Esso (Acquisition of Undertakings in India) Act, 1974.

March 23: Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974.

March 27: Economic Offences (Inapplicability of Limitation) Act, 1974.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

-

Deathday/Demise

March 12: Billy Fox, Protestant Dublin MP, was assassinated.

Anniversary

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Legal News

April 1: Ayatollah Khomeini called for an Islamic Republic in Iran.

April 1: In the England the Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties came into being.

April 2 : Alain Pohrer (1909-1996) as President of the Senate, served as interim president for 7 weeks.

April 3: The Joint Committee on Internal Revenue Taxation of the Congress reported that $476,531 in back taxes and interest was owed by President Richard Nixon. Responding to charges of fraud, Nixon requested the committee investigation of his taxes and, upon its report, agreed to pay. The report made no conclusion regarding fraud.

April 4: In England an armed payroll robbery took place at the London Electricity Board (LEB). George Davis (b.1941) was arrested for the robbery and his wife, Rose Davis (d.2009, campaigned for his release. In 1976 the conviction was overturned as unsafe. In Sep 1977 George was again arrested for a bank robbery and Rose promptly divorced him. In 2009 she authored “The Wars of Rosie: Hard Knocks, Endurance and the 'George Davis Is Innocent' Campaign.”

April 5: The World Trade Center (WTC), the tallest building in the world at 110 stories, opened in NYC.

April 10: Golda Meir announced her resignation as prime minister of Israel. Yitzhak Rabin replaced Golda Meir.

April 11: The US House Judiciary Committee votes 33-3 to issue a subpoena ordering Nixon to turn over all tape recordings and related materials on 42 conversations.

April 11: United Mine Workers president W. A. "Tony" Boyle was found guilty of first-degree murder, for ordering the assassination of union reformer Joseph A. "Jock" Yablonski in 1969. Yablonski, his wife and daughter were murdered on December 30, 1969. Boyle had defeated Yablonski in the UMW election earlier in the year-an election marred by intimidation and vote fraud. In 1972 the election was set aside by a federal court after Boyle had been convicted of illegal use of UMW funds in the federal elections of 1968. In a new election held in December, 1972, Boyle was defeated by rank and file reformist Arnold Miller. Soon after the election Boyle was put on trial for murdering the Yablonskis and was sentenced to three consecutive life terms in prison. 

April 11: WW II war criminal JP Philippa was arrested.

April 15: Military coup in Niger, president Diori Hamani was deposed.

April 16: USSR performed nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

April 17: Muslim fundamentalists assaulted military academy in Heliopolis, Egypt.

April 18: In Genoa, Italy, the Red Brigade kidnapped deputy attorney Mario Sossi. He was held for 35 days.

April 19: In San Francisco Angelo Pavageau brutally beat Frank Carlson (25) to death, raped his wife and brutally beat her before setting the couple’s house on fire at 1301 Kansas St. in Potrero Hill. Annette Carlson (24) survived. Pavageau was found guilty of murder in 1974 and was sentenced to death. In 1976 his sentence was reduced to life in prison with the possibility of parole.

April 20: The Troubles', the Northern Ireland conflict between republican and loyalist paramilitaries, British security forces, and civil rights groups, claimed its 1000th victim.

April 23: USSR performed nuclear test at Sary Shagan USSR.

April 25: Marshal Antonio de Spinola (1910-1996) was called to the barricades in Portugal to receive the surrender of the 41-year old regime of Antonio Salazar. Spinola was then named head of state by the 7-member military junta, which included Gen. Costa Gomes. The Carnation Revolution changed the Portuguese regime from an authoritarian dictatorship to a democracy after two years of a transitional period known as PREC (Processo Revolucionário Em Curso), characterised by social turmoil and power dispute between left and right wing political forces.

April 25: Günter Guillaume, an aide to West German Chancellor Willy Brandt, was exposed as a Stasi spy (East German secret service).

April 25: Leo Tindemans formed Belgium Government.

April 26: Malta adopted Constitution.

April 28: A federal jury in New York acquitted former Attorney General John Mitchell and former Commerce Secretary Maurice H. Stans of charges in connection with a secret $200,000 contribution to President Nixon's re-election campaign from financier Robert Vesco. Vesco had gained control of IOS, a mutual fund firm, and looted hundreds of millions. In 1971 he fled to the Bahamas, then Costa Rica and finally to Cuba where he was convicted in 1996 for economic crimes against the state and sentenced to 13 years in prison.

April 29: President Nixon announced he was releasing edited transcripts of some secretly made White House tape recordings related to Watergate.

April 30: President Nixon handed over partial transcripts of Watergate tape recordings.

Law amendments

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Land mark judgements

APRIL 14: Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Iceland): On 14 April and 5 June 1972, respectively, the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany instituted proceedings against Iceland concerning a dispute over the proposed extension by Iceland, as from 1 September 1972, of the limits of its exclusive fisheries jurisdiction from a distance of 12 to a distance of 50 nautical miles. Iceland declared that the Court lacked jurisdiction, and declined to be represented in the proceedings or file pleadings. At the request of the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic, the Court in 1972 indicated, and in 1973 confirmed, provisional measures to the effect that Iceland should refrain from implementing, with respect to their vessels, the new regulations regarding the extension of the zone of its exclusive fishing rights, and that the annual catch of those vessels in the disputed area should be limited to certain maxima. In Judgments delivered on 2 February 1973, the Court found that it possessed jurisdiction ; and in Judgments on the merits of 25 July 1974, it found that the Icelandic regulations. constituting a unilateral extension of exclusive fishing rights to a limit of 50 nautical miles were not opposable to either the United Kingdom or the Federal Republic, that Iceland was not entitled unilaterally to exclude their fishing vessels from the disputed area, and that the Parties were under mutual obligations to undertake negotiations in good faith for the equitable solution of their differences.

Birthday

April 9: Alexander Pichushkin, Russian serial killer (known as The Chessboard Killer and The Bitsa Park Maniac), born in Mytishchi, Moscow Oblast, Russia.

April 10: Eric Greitens, American former military officer, born in St. Louis, Missouri.

Deathday/Demise

April 2: Georges Pompidou, French President (1969-1974) and Prime Minister (1962-1968), died in Paris at 62.

April 6: Willem Dudok (b.1884), Dutch architect (Hilversum Town Hall), died.

April 20: Mohammed Ayub Khan, premier/president (Pakistan), died.

Anniversary

-

Legal News

The Sikkimese Congress decided to put an end to monarchical rule, and the Sikkim assembly passed the Government of Sikkim Act 1974, for the progressive realisation of a fully responsible government in Sikkim and for furthering its relationship with India.

May - 1974 railway strike in India was a major strike by the workers of Indian Railways. The strike lasted from 8 to 27 May 1974. The 20 day strike by 1.7 million workers is the largest recorded industrial action in the world.

May 2: Former US Vice President Spiro Agnew was disbarred.

May 2: Six Catholic civilians were killed and eighteen wounded when the UVF exploded a bomb at Rose & Crown Bar on Ormeau Road, Belfast.

May 6: West German Chancellor Willy Brandt resigned amidst controversy over his aide Günter Guillaume's ties with the Stasi (East German secret service).

May 8: Canadian government of Pierre Trudeau falls.

May 8: William Simon (1927-2000), former Wall Street bond trader, began serving as the 63rd head of the US Treasury Dept. under Pres. Nixon. Simon was reappointed by President Ford and served until 1977. From 1977-1980 he served as treasurer of the US Olympic Committee.

May 9: US House of Representatives Judiciary Committee began formal hearings on Nixon impeachment.

My 14: Symbionese Liberation Army destroyed in shoot-out, 6 killed.

My 15: Walter Scheel succeeds Gustav Heinemann as West German President.

My 15: Beginning of the Ulster Workers' Council strike called by Ulster loyalists and unionists who were against the Sunningdale Agreement, which proposed the sharing of political power with Irish nationalists.

My 16: Helmut Schmidt becomes West German Chancellor.

My 16 :USSR performed nuclear Test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

May 17: Ulster Volunteer Force (UVF) exploded four bombs in Republic of Ireland, killing 33 civilians, wounding 300 (highest number of casualties in a single incident during "The Troubles”).

May 18: Under project Smiling Buddha, India successfully detonates its first nuclear weapon in the Thar Desert, and became the sixth nation to do so.

May 19: Valeri Giscard d'Estaing won French Presidential election.

May 20: Soyuz 14 returned to Earth.

May 20: Judge John Sirica ordered President Nixon to turn over tapes and records of 64 White House conversations regarding Watergate.

May 22: US performed nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

May 23: Great Britain performed nuclear test at Nevada Test Site.

May 26: U.S. : The federal government instituted the Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) program under the Housing and Urban Development (HUD) agency.

May 27: In France Valerie Giscard d’Estaing began serving as president. He nominated Jacques Chirac (b.1932) to serve as prime minister. Chirac served his 1st term as prime minister to Aug 26, 1976.

May 29: Northern Ireland was brought under direct rule from Westminster.

May 31: Israel and Syria signed an agreement concerning Golan Heights.

May 31: USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR.

May: Major Abdel Jalloud, Libya's second in command, traveled to Moscow and concluded the first in a series of arms sales agreements that remain the largest ever reached by the Soviets.

Law amendments

19 May: Articles 101 and 190 were amended with the objective: Prescribes procedure for resignation by members of parliament and state legislatures and the procedure for verification and acceptance of resignation by house speaker.

Land mark judgements

May 9: Nuclear Tests (Australia v. France): On 9 May 1973, Australia and New Zealand each instituted proceedings against France concerning tests of nuclear weapons which France proposed to carry out in the atmosphere in the South Pacific region. France stated that it considered the Court manifestly to lack jurisdiction and refrained from appearing at the public hearings or filing any pleadings. By two Orders of 22 June 1973, the Court, at the request of Australia and New Zealand, indicated provisional measures to the effect, inter alia , that pending judgment France should avoid nuclear tests causing radioactive fall-out on Australian or New Zealand territory. By two Judgments delivered on 20 December 1974, the Court found that the Applications of Australia and New Zealand no longer had any object and that it was therefore not called upon to give any decision thereon. In so doing the Court based itself on the conclusion that the objective of Australia and New Zealand had been achieved inasmuch as France, in various public statements, had announced its intention of carrying out no further atmospheric nuclear tests on the completion of the 1974 series.

May 9: Nuclear Tests (New Zealand v. France): On 9 May 1973, Australia and New Zealand each instituted proceedings against France concerning tests of nuclear weapons which France proposed to carry out in the atmosphere in the South Pacific region. France stated that it considered the Court manifestly to lack jurisdiction and refrained from appearing at the public hearings or filing any pleadings. By two Orders of 22 June 1973, the Court, at the request of Australia and New Zealand, indicated provisional measures to the effect, inter alia , that pending judgment France should avoid nuclear tests causing radioactive fall-out on Australian or New Zealand territory. By two Judgments delivered on 20 December 1974, the Court found that the Applications of Australia and New Zealand no longer had any object and that it was therefore not called upon to give any decision thereon. In so doing the Court based itself on the conclusion that the objective of Australia and New Zealand had been achieved inasmuch as France, in various public statements, had announced its intention of carrying out no further atmospheric nuclear tests on the completion of the 1974 series.

Birthday

May 3: Princess Haya bint Hussein of Jordan, daughter of King Hussein of Jordan and his third wife, Queen Alia, born in Amman, Jordan.

Deathday/Demise

May 13: Jaime Torres Bodet, Mexican politician, 2nd Director-General of the UNESCO (1948-52), died at 72.

May 15: Guy Simonds, Canadian army, youngest General officer, died at 71.

May 24: Duke Ellington, American musician, died of cancer at 75.

Anniversary

May 30:Shri Ramnath Kovind married Smt Savita Kovind.

Legal News

June 1: Arab oil ministers decide to end most restrictions on exports of oil to the United States but continue embargo against the Netherlands, Portugal, South Africa, and Rhodesia.

June 2: Mali adopted Constitution.

June 2: Malta's Constitution came into effect.

June 2: Jigme Druk Gyalpo Jigme Singye Wangchuck (18) was crowned king of Bhutan.

June 3: The last Air America aircraft crossed the border from Laos into Thailand. American forces left Laos and abandoned some 36,000 Laotians hired to battle North Vietnamese troops. The Hmong and Iu Mien were 2 hill tribes hired by the Americans to break codes and rescue downed pilots. Many of the soldiers fled to Thailand where they lived in refugee camps. Some 35,000 Iu Mien later moved to the US.

June 3: Yitzhak Rabin (1922-1995) formed a new Israeli government.

June 6: A new Instrument of Government is promulgated making Sweden a parliamentary monarchy.

June 6: James Quisenberry (26), in prison for aggravated assault and armed robbery, escaped from a New Jersey prison. In 2007 he was found and arrested in California.

June 8: US and Saudi Arabia sign military-economic contract

June 10: It was rumoured that Governments in Italy has resigned.

June 14: Leonard K. Firestone (1907-1996), son of Harvey Firestone (1868-1938) — the founder of the Firestone Tire & Rubber Co., began serving as US ambassador to Belgium. He continued as ambassador there until January 20, 1977.

June 15: "All the President's Men" by Carl Bernstein and Bob Woodward detailing their Watergate investigation is published by Simon and Schuster in the US.

June 17: Washington, DC, US District Court Judge John J. Sirica sentenced Herbert Kalmbach (1921-2017), Pres. Nixon’s personal attorney, to up to 18 months in prison. In February Kalmbach had pleaded guilty to violating the Federal Corrupt Practices Act by raising $3.9 million for a secret Republican Congressional Campaign Committee. Kalmbach ended up serving only 191 days, when Sirica released him citing his cooperation with prosecutors. Kalmbach was a conduit for hush money from the 1972 presidential campaign.

June 17: The Provisional Irish Republican Army bombed the Houses of Parliament in London, injuring 11 people and caused extensive damage.

June 18: Gaston Thorn forms Luxembourg Government.

June 19: Yemen Arab Republic (North Yemen) suspended Constitution.

June 27: US President Nixon visits USSR.

June 27: President Nixon arrived in Moscow for his 3rd summit. During the summit the US and Russia approved a partial  atomic test ban treaty.

June 27: In Chile Gen. Augusto Pinochet proclaimed himself "Supreme Chief of the Nation" (de facto provisional president).

June 28: Mario J. Molina and F. Sherwood Rowland of UCLA, Irvine, proposed an alarming hypothesis in Nature that the use of chlorofluorocarbons added chlorine to the environment in steadily increasing amounts. In 1985  scientists discovered a hole in the ozone layer over Antarctica. In 1987 governments negotiated the Montreal protocol to phase out CFCs.

June 29: In Fresno, Ca., Clarence Ray Allen (44) robbed Fran’s market. Soon after Mary Sue Kitts (17) was murdered on orders from Allen (44) for revealing Allen’s role in a robbery. In 1997 Allen was convicted for her murder and was sentenced to life in prison. Allen faced execution in 2006.

June 29: In Uruguay Lt. Miguel Dalmao (23) was in charge of the jail where Nibia Sabalsagaray, a literature professor (24) and communist activist, was taken from her Montevideo apartment. Hours later, she was dead. In 2013 Gen. Dalmao was convicted of human rights violations.

June 29: Military coup in Ethiopia.

Law amendments

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Land mark judgements

June 5: Fisheries Jurisdiction (United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland v. Iceland): On 14 April and 5 June 1972, respectively, the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic of Germany instituted proceedings against Iceland concerning a dispute over the proposed extension by Iceland, as from 1 September 1972, of the limits of its exclusive fisheries jurisdiction from a distance of 12 to a distance of 50 nautical miles. Iceland declared that the Court lacked jurisdiction, and declined to be represented in the proceedings or file pleadings. At the request of the United Kingdom and the Federal Republic, the Court in 1972 indicated, and in 1973 confirmed, provisional measures to the effect that Iceland should refrain from implementing, with respect to their vessels, the new regulations regarding the extension of the zone of its exclusive fishing rights, and that the annual catch of those vessels in the disputed area should be limited to certain maxima. In Judgments delivered on 2 February 1973, the Court found that it possessed jurisdiction ; and in Judgments on the merits of 25 July 1974, it found that the Icelandic regulations. constituting a unilateral extension of exclusive fishing rights to a limit of 50 nautical miles were not opposable to either the United Kingdom or the Federal Republic, that Iceland was not entitled unilaterally to exclude their fishing vessels from the disputed area, and that the Parties were under mutual obligations to undertake negotiations in good faith for the equitable solution of their differences.

Birthday

June 4: Andrew Gwynne, British Politician.

June 7: Mahesh Bhupathi, India, tennis pro.

June 23: Maria Carolina Christina, Princess of Netherlands.

Deathday/Demise

June 11: Eurico Gaspar Dutra, President of Brazil (b. 1883).

June 17:Yadavendra Singh, cricketer (Yuvraj of Patiala, Test for India), died.

June 18 :Georgy Zhukov, Russian deputy commander-in-chief of the Red Army during WWII (Battles of Stalingrad, Kursk and Berlin) and Minister of Defense, died at 77.

June 30: Alberta King (b.1903), mother of Martin Luther King Jr. , was assassinated in Ebenezer Baptist Church in Atlanta, Georgia by Marcus Chenault, a twenty-one year old from Ohio who claimed that"all Christians are my enemies."

Anniversary

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Legal News

July 1: General Augusto Pinochet becomes president and dictator of Chile.

July 1 : Isabel Peron succeeded her husband Juan as President of Argentina.

July 1: Walter Scheel (b.1919) began serving as the 4th President of the Federal Republic of Germany and continued to 1979.

July 8: USSR performs underground nuclear test.

July 8: Trudeau's Liberal Party won Canadian parliamentary election.

July 11: John W. Dean testified before the US House Judiciary Committee in the impeachment inquiry of President Nixon.

July 12: President Richard Nixon's aides G. Gordon Liddy, John Ehrlichman and two others were convicted of conspiracy and perjury in connection with the Watergate scandal. They were convicted of conspiring to violate the civil rights of Daniel Ellsberg's former psychiatrist.

July 12: The US Budget Control Act was signed into law. It stripped away from the president the power to withhold appropriated spending, and placed it in the hands of Congress. The Congressional budget Office was formed.

July 13: The US Senate Watergate Committee proposed sweeping reforms to prevent another Watergate scandal.

July 15: Greek troops and the Greek Cypriot National Guard staged a military coup on Cyprus and archbishop-president Makarios fled. Nikos Giorgiades Sampson (d.2001 at 66) served as president for 8 days following the military coup that overthrew Archbishop Makarios. PM Bulent Ecevit ordered Turkish troops to invade Cyprus following the Greek Cypriot coup.

July 17: France performs nuclear Test at Mururoa atoll.

July 19: The House Judiciary Committee recommended that President Richard Nixon should stand trial in the Senate for any of the five impeachment charges against him.

July 23: Greece's military rulers announced they would turn the nation back to civilian rule. Constantine Karamanlis returned from 11 years of self-imposed exile and was sworn in as premier. Karamanlis later won a landslide election and served as prime minister until 1980. The Ioannides regime collapsed after plotting an aborted military takeover of Cyprus.

July 23: Greek military dictatorship collapses.

July 24: The U.S. Supreme Court unanimously ruled that President Nixon had to turn over subpoenaed White House tape recordings to the Watergate special prosecutor.

July 24  : Watergate scandal – United States v. Nixon: The Supreme Court unanimously rules that President Richard Nixon cannot withhold subpoenaed White House tapes, and orders him to surrender them to the Watergate special prosecutor.

July 25: The US Supreme Court ruled in Milliken v Bradley that desegregation cannot be required across school district lines. The case had originated in Detroit.

July 27: The House Judiciary Committee voted 27-11 to recommend President Nixon's impeachment on a charge that he had personally engaged in a "course of conduct" designed to obstruct justice in the Watergate case.

July 29: The House Judiciary Committee approved Article 2 in the impeachment against President Nixon.

July 30: The House Judiciary Committee voted down an article of impeachment against President Richard Nixon relating to demeaning his office by misconduct of personal financial affairs. In April, 1974, a congressional inquiry into possible tax fraud revealed that Nixon owed $476,531 in back taxes for the period 1969-72. He agreed to pay and no conclusion was drawn by the congress regarding fraud. The Judiciary Committee vote against the article of impeachment was 26-12. Article 3 of the impeachment was passed. Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974. Peter Rodino presided over the impeachment hearings.

July 30: The prime ministers of Greece and Turkey and the British Foreign Secretary signed a peace agreement to settle the Cyprus crisis.

Law amendments

July 1: Article 371 was amended.

July 1: 7th Schedule was amended.

July 1: Article 371D and Article 371E were inserted. Article 371D: Special Provisions for Andhra Pradesh

President is empowered to provide equitable opportunities & facilities for people belonging to different parts of the state in matter of public employment & education For above purpose, President may require the state government to organize civil posts in local cadre for different parts of the state & also provide for direct recruitment to posts in local cadre (or in any such educational institution) President may provide for establishment of an administrative tribunal in state to deal with certain disputes, relating to appointment, allotment or promotion to civil posts in state. Only SC is to exercise jurisdiction over such tribunal which means they are outside the purview of HC (President may abolish the tribunals if he thinks it is not necessary)

Article 371E: Special Provisions for Sikkim

Legislative assembly shall not less than 30 members + 1 seat from the state in Lok Sabha & 1 in parliamentary constituency For the purpose of protecting the rights & interest of different sections of Sikkim population, Parliament is empowered to provide number of seats in Sikkim administrative assembly for the people belonging to such sections Governor in his discretion (On direction of President) have special responsibility for peace & equitable arrangement for socio- economic development of different sections of Sikkim

July 6: Additional Emoluments (Compulsory Deposit) Act, 1974.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

July 9 : Sian Berry, British Politician

July 28: Alexis Tsipras, Greek politician (Greek President 2015), born in Athens

Deathday/Demise

July 1: Juan Perón, Argentine military officer and President of Argentina (1946-55, 73-74), died of a heart attack at 78

July 9: Earl Warren, governor of California/Supreme court justice (1953-68), died at 83.

Anniversary

-

Legal News

August 1: China's People's Liberation Army Navy, put into service ChangZheng 1, their first nuclear-powered submarine.

August 5: US President Richard Nixon admits he withheld information about Watergate break-in.

August 8: US President Richard Nixon announces he will resign at 12pm the next day.

August 9: Richard Nixon resigns as US President and VP Gerald Ford swears the oath of office to take his place as the 38th US President.

August 14: USSR performs underground nuclear test

August 20: Nelson Rockefeller was selected as US Vice President by President Gerald Ford.

August 20: Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed is elected fifth President of India.

August 26: Guinee-Bissau becomes independent of Portugal.

Law amendments

August 26: Coal Mines (Conservation and Development) Act, 1974.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

August 9: Kirill Reznik, American Politician

Deathday/Demise

August 31: Norman Kirk, New Zealand Prime Minister

Anniversary

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Legal News

September 1: Dutch law against pirate radio goes into effect.

September 2: US President Gerald Ford signs Employee Retirement Income Security Act.

September 3: US & German Democratic Republic establish diplomatic relations.

September 8: US President Gerald Ford pardons former President Richard Nixon of all federal crimes.

September 10: Portugal recognises independence of Republic of Guinea-Bissau.

September 16: US President Gerald Ford announces conditional amnesty for US Vietnam War deserters.

September 16: US General Alexander Haig Jr. becomes NATO supreme commander in Europe.

September 30: General Francisco da Costa Gomesz succeeds General António de Spínola as President of Portugal.

Law amendments

September 3: University of Hyderabad Act, 1974.

THE CONSTITUTION (THIRTY-FOURTH AMENDMENT) ACT, 1974

September 7: Amendment of Ninth Schedule.-In the Ninth Schedule to the Constitution, after entry 66 and before the Explanation, the following entries shall be inserted, namely:-

"67. The Andhra Pradesh Land Reforms (Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings) Act, 1973 (Andhra Pradesh Act 1 of 1973).

68. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act I of 1973).

69. The Bihar Land Reforms (Fixation of Ceiling Area and Acquisition of Surplus Land) (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Bihar Act IX of 1973).

70. The Bihar Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Bihar Act V of 1972).

71. The Gujarat Agricultural Lands Ceiling (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 2 of 1974).

72. The Haryana Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Haryana Act 26 of 1972).

73. The Himachal Pradesh Ceiling on Land Holdings Act, 1972 (Himachal Pradesh Act 19 of 1973).

74. The Kerala Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Kerala Act 17 of 1972).

75. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Amendment) Act, 1972 (Madhya Pradesh Act 12 of 1974).

76. The Madhya Pradesh Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings (Second Amendment) Act, 1972 (Madhya Pradesh Act 13 of 1974).

77. The Mysore Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1973 (Karnataka Act 1 of 1974).

78. The Punjab Land Reforms Act, 1972 (Punjab Act 10 of 1973).

79. The[[B Rajasthan Imposition of Ceiling on Agricultural Holdings Act, 1973 (Rajasthan Act 11 of 1973).

80. The Gudalur Janmam Estates (Abolition and Conversion into Ryotwari) Act, 1969 (Tamil Nadu Act 24 of 1969).

81. The West Bengal Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1972 (West Bengal Act XII of 1972).

82. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Amendment) Act, 1964 (West Bengal Act XXII of 1964).

83. The West Bengal Estates Acquisition (Second Amendment) Act, 1973 (West Bengal Act XXXIII of 1973).

84. The Bombay Tenancy and Agricultural Lands (Gujarat Amendment) Act, 1972 (Gujarat Act 5 of 1973).

85. The Orissa Land Reforms (Amendment) Act, 1974 (Orissa Act 9 of 1974).

86. The Tripura Land Revenue and Land Reforms (Second Amendment) Act, 1974 (Tripura Act 7 of 1974).".

September 23: Interest-tax Act, 1974.

September 26: Oil Industry (Development) Act, 1974.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

September 16: Julian Castro, American politician, born in San Antonio, Texas

Deathday/Demise

September 4: Lewi Pethrus, Swedish politician (b. 1884)

September 11: Víctor Olea Alegría, Chilean Socialist Party member

September 14: Pieter Y Adriani , Dutch tax lawyer, died at 95

September 27: Silvio Frondizi, Argentine lawyer, assassinated by the Triple A(b. 1907)

September 29: John Smallenbroek, Dutch Internal minister, died at 72

September 30:Carlos Prats, Chilean Constitutionalist General, assassinated in the frame of Operation Condor

Anniversary

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Legal News

October 1: Watergate cover-up trial opens in Washington, D.C.

October 3: Watergate criminal trial began.

October 7: German Democratic Republic amends Constitution.

October 10: Labour Party led by Harold Wilson wins UK general election.

October 10: US General George Brown's speech deplores Jewish influence in US over his treatment during the 1973 World Series.

October 11: A's Catfish Hunter charge owner Charlie Finley with breach of contract.

October 18: Andre van de Louw appointed Mayor of Rotterdam.

October 29: Law bans discrimination of sex or marital status in credit application.

Law amendments

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Land mark judgements

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Birthday

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Deathday/Demise

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Anniversary

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Legal News

November 1: UN affirms independence of Cyprus.

November 5: Ella Grasso (Ct) elected first woman US governor not related to previous governor, November 5: Walter E Washington, becomes first elected mayor of Washington, D.C.

November 20: The US files antitrust suit to break-up AT & T.

November 21: Freedom of Information Act passed by Congress over President Ford's veto.

November 22: UN General Assembly recognises Palestine right to sovereignty.

November 24: Gerald Ford and Leonid Brezhnev sign the SALT-2 treaty to reduce each side's number of nuclear weapons.

Law amendments

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Land mark judgements

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Birthday

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Deathday/Demise

November 25: U Thant, Burmese politician and 3rd Secretary-General of the United Nations (1961-72), died in NY of cancer at 65

Anniversary

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Legal News

December 8: Greek monarchy rejected by Referendum.

December 8: Irish Republican Socialist Party was formed.

December 13: Malta became Republic.

December 19: Nelson Rockefeller was sworn in as Vice President of the United States.

December 20: Ethiopia became socialist one-party state.

December 22: Provisional Irish Republican Army bombarded home of former UK Prime Minister, Edward Heath, just before announcing Christmas ceasefire.

December 24: Former US astronaut John Glenn joined the Senate for Ohio.

Law amendments

December 13 : Conservation of Foreign Exchange and Prevention of Smuggling Activities Act, 1974.

December 20: East-Punjab Urban Rent Restriction (Extension to Chandigarh) Act, 1974.

December 21: Sick Textile Undertakings (Nationalisation) Act, 1974.

Land mark judgements

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Birthday

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Deathday/Demise

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Anniversary

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