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Total Sections 21
Enforcement Year 1987
State or Central Central
Editor Template:USERNAME
ASSN: 20292

Radiation Surveillance Procedure for Safe Transport of Radioactive Material,1987.

In exercise of the powers conferred by sub-section (1) read with clause (i) of sub- section (2) of Section 30 and clause (b) of sub-section (1) of Section 17 of the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962) and all other powers enabling it in this behalf, the Central Government hereby makes the following rules, namely —

1. Short title, extent and commencement — (1) These rules may be called the Atomic Energy (Safe Disposal of Radioactive Wastes) Rules, 1987.

(2) They shall come into force on the date of their publication in the Official Gazette.

2. Definitions — In these rules, unless the context otherwise requires :- (i) “accident condition” means a substantial deviation from normal operating conditions which could lead to release of unacceptable quantities of radioactive materials if the relevant engineered safety features did not function as per design intent;

(ii) “Act” means the Atomic Energy Act, 1962 (33 of 1962);

(iii) “adequate protection” means protection against radiation so provided that the prescribed operational limits are not exceeded;

(iv) “applicant” means a person or an organisation that applies, in Form A , for granting of authorisation to perform specified activities connected with disposal of radioactive wastes;

(v) “authorisation” means permission for disposal of radioactive wastes, granted by the competent authority in Form B;

(vi) “authorised person” means a person authorised by the competent authority to disposal of radioactive waste in accordance with the provisions of these rules;

(vii) “competent authority” means any officer or authority appointed by the Central Government by notification under these rules;

(viii) “Conditioning” means those operations, chemical or physical, that transform the radioactive waste into a form suitable for transport, storage or final disposal and may include converting the waste to another form, enclosing the waste in containers and providing additional packaging;

(ix) “Contamination” means the presence of radioactive substance in a material or place that may be specified as excessive by the competent authority by notification for the purposes of these rules;

(x) “disposal” means release of any material to the environment in a manner leading to loss of control over the future disposition of the radionuclides contained therein and includes emplacement of waste materials in a repository;

(xi) “disposal limits” means the limits for disposal of radioactive waste, prescribed from time to time by the competent authority under these rules;

(xii) “effluent” means gaseous, particulate or liquid emission which is discharged from the installation into its environment;

(xiii) “environment” means the surroundings of an installation that will influence the life, survival and development of human beings and any organisms relevant to man;

(xiv) “employer” means a person who employs workers or who is self-employed as a worker in an installation;

(xv) “Form” means form attached to these rules;

(xvi) “installation” or “institution” means any location wherein the processes incidental to the waste generation, conditioning, storage and disposal are carried out;

(xvii) “institutional control” means controls or actions to preclude unauthorised human contact with radioactive waste and includes controlled access to the installation and to the restricted area around it, periodic inspection and surveillance of the said installation and its restricted area, controlled productive use of the said restricted area and restrictions in the form of titles and deeds for land use;

(xviii) “operational limits” means operational limits prescribed from time to time under the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971;

(xix) “packaging” means any container prepared for containing the conditioned waste for handling, transportation, storage or disposal and may be permanent part of the waste package or it may be a reusable cask or overpack;

(xx) “person” includes, (i) any individual, corporation, association of persons whether incorporated or not, partnership, estate, trust, private or public institution, group, government agency, or any state or any political sub-division thereof or any political entity within state, any foreign government or nation or any political sub-division of any such government or nation or other entity; and

(ii) any legal successor, representative or agent of each of the foregoing;

(xxi) “Radiological Safety Officer” means any person who is so designated by the employer and who, in the opinion of the competent authority, is qualified to discharge the duties and functions outlined in rule 13 of these rules;

(xxii) “radioactive waste” means any waste material containing radionuclides in quantities or concentrations as prescribed by the competent authority by notification in the official gazette;

(xxiii) “repository” means an underground geological formation with or without enginenered barriers or an overground vault in which waste may be emplaced for disposal; (xxiv) “restricted area” means any area access to which is controlled by the employer and approved as such by the competent authority for purposes of protection of individuals from exposure to radiation and radioactive contamination;

(xxv) “scheduled” means schedule attached to these rules;

(xxvi) “storage” as distinct from disposal, means containment of the radioactive wastes under controlled conditions and under radiation surveillance in accordance with the provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 (xxvii) “Surveillance” includes all planned activities performed, — (i) to ensure that conditions at an installation remain within prescribed limits;

(ii) to ensure that the operational limits prescribed under the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971, are not exceeded; and

(iii) to detect in a timely manner any unsafe condition and the degradation of structure, system and components which could at a later time result in an unsafe condition in the installation or in its environment;

(xxviii) “waste form” means the physical land chemical form of the waste, without its packaging;

(xxix) “waste package” means waste form duly contained in its packaging for handling, transportation, storage or disposal;

(xxx) words and expressions used in these rules and not defined but defined in the Act, shall have the meanings respectively assigned to them in the Act.

3. Restrictions on the disposal of radioactive waste — No person shall dispose of radioactive waste — (a) unless he has obtained an authorisation from the competent authority under these rules;

(b) in any manner other than in accordance with the terms and conditions specified in the authorisation issued under these rules;

(c) in any location different from those specified in the authorisation;

(d) in quantities exceeding those specified in the authorisation.

4. Application for authorisation — Each application for authorisation to dispose of or transfer radioactive waste shall be made (save as provided in rule 15) in Form I and shall include — (i) brief description of — (a) the process, materials and equipment generating radioactive wastes in the installation;

(b) the equipment and systems provided in the waste generating installation to monitor and control the radioactive wastes and to reduce environmental releases;

(c) the environment around the installation;

(d) the processes and equipment in the installation for conditioning, treatment and disposal of radioactive waste and the staff employed for the purpose;

(e) safety devices incorporated in the waste disposal installation to contain the radioactive effluents and control their release to unrestricted areas during normal operations, including anticipated operational occurrences and to keep these releases as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA);

(f) an estimate of the amounts of annual releases, discharges and leakages from radioactive waste repositories during normal condition and an analysis of their anticipated environmental impact;

(g) an analysis of the potential accidents which may occur in the installation and design features and monitoring equipment incorporated in the waste disposal installation to control the release of radioactivity in the event of such accidents;

(h) procedures to be followed for safe collection of radioactive wastes arising from such accidents and (i) design features of surveillance equipment incorporated or otherwise provided in and around the waste disposal installation to monitor the normal releases of activity and those released in the event of an accident;

(ii) estimates of the quantities of each of the principal radionuclides expected to be released in the environment annually (in solid, liquid and gaseous form) during normal operations;

(iii) any other information, which the competent authority may deem necessary to evaluate the safety status of waste disposal operations.

5. Issuance of authorisation — The competent authority shall issue authorisation in Form II where it is satisfied that the applicant has complied with the requirements of rule 4.

6. Duties of the authorised person — Every authorised person shall ensure that — (i) disposal of radioactive wastes is done in accordance with the provisions of these rules, and in accordance with the terms and conditions laid down in the authorisation;

(ii) records of waste disposal are maintained in Form III for the periods stipulated by the competent authority;

(iii) all the requirements of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 are complied with;

(iv) any operation likely to result in a more hazardous accident than that envisaged in the safety analysis given by the applicant under rule 4(i)(g) are not carried out in the installation;

(v) personnel monitoring and environmental surveillance is carried out on a continued basis to evaluate the risks and to monitor the environmental impact of the waste disposal operations;

(vi) unless stipulated otherwise in the authorisation, quarterly reports are submitted to the competent authority in Form IV; (vii) reports received on any hazardous situation, as provided under clause (g) of rule 13, are forthwith transmitted to the competent authority;

(viii) that the Radiological Safety Officer discharges his duties under rule 13 of these rules;

(ix) after the waste disposal installation is closed, institutional control is maintained for such time as stipulated by the competent authority in each specific case under rule 11.

7. Maintenance of Records of Waste Disposal — Every authorised person shall maintain records of disposal or radioactive waste giving the following particulars — (a) the description, quantity, physical state, chemical characteristics and the date of disposal of each consignment of radioactive waste;

(b) mode of disposal, concentration of radioactive material in the waste disposed of and site of disposal;

(c) names of the workers and the Radiological Safety Officer associated with the disposal of the radioactive waste;

(d) data on periodic radiation surveillance in and around the site of the disposal of radioactive waste, as specified in the authorisation;

(e) any other information which the competent authority deems necessary.

8. Installation for Disposal of Radioactive Waste to be considered as Radiation Installation — Any installation for disposal of radioactive waste shall be considered a radiation installation as defined under the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971.

9. Prevention of Entry into Restricted Areas — The authorised person shall make adequate arrangements to prevent entry of unauthorised members of the public in the restricted areas and shall further ensure that only the essential staff remains in the said areas to perform necessary operations.

10. Power to inspect installations — Any person duly authorised by the competent authority under section 17 of the Act, for purposes of inspection and enforcement of these rules may at any time — (a) inspect any installation where disposal of radioactive waste is carried out;

(b) inspect any equipment (permanently installed or mobile) therein;

(c) make such tests and or measurements as may be necessary for purposes of evaluating radiation hazards;

(d) order disposal of such radioactive wastes as he deems necessary in the interest of radiation protection;

(e) do all such things (including examination of relevant records) as he may consider necessary for purposes of determining the adequacy or otherwise of the methods employed and devices used therein for controlling and monitoring environmental release of radioactive materials.

11. Closure and Institutional Control — Decommissioning or closure of a radioactive waste disposal installation and institutional control shall be undertaken by the authorised person after obtaining permission from the competent authority and in accordance with the procedure as prescribed by the competent authority in each case.

12. Radiological Safety Officer — The authorised person shall designate, with the approval of the competent authority; either himself or a person under his employ as Radiological Safety Officer. The Radiological Safety Officer shall possess the following minimum educational qualifications, training and experience — (i) A graduate in science with mathematics and physics as the subjects;

(ii) Training in radiological safety at the Bhabha Atomic Research Centre or at any other organisation recognised as equivalent by the competent authority; and

(iii) One year experience of discharging relevant duties under a qualified Radiological Safety Officer.

13. Duties and Functions of the Radiological Safety Officer — The duties and functions of the Radiological Safety Officer in the radiation installation shall be as follows : (a) to advise the employer regarding the safe handling and disposal of radioactive wastes and on the steps necessary to ensure that the operational limits are not exceeded;

(b) to instruct the radiation workers engaged in waste disposal on the hazards of radiation and on suitable safety measures and work practices aimed at minimising exposures to radiation and contamination, and to ensure that adequate radiation surveillance is provided for all radiation workers and the environment;

(c) to carry out such tests on conditioned radioactive wastes, as specified by the competent authority;

(d) to ensure that all buildings, laboratories and plants wherein radioactive wastes will be or are likely to be handled/produced, conditioned or stored or discharged from, are designed to provide adequate safety for safe handling and disposal of radioactive waste;

(e) to assess the radiation protection instruments required for an installation and to keep such instruments in use under proper calibration;

(f) to help investigate and initiate prompt and suitable remedial measures in respect of any situation that could lead to radiation hazards;

(g) to ensure that reports on all hazardous situations (including situations of the type referred to in rule 14 or as laid down by the competent authority regarding operational limits) along with details of any immediate remedial measures that may have been initiated are made available immediately to his employer and a copy thereof to the competent authority;

(h) to ensure that the provisions of the Radiation Protection Rules, 1971 are followed properly.

14. Accidental release of radioactive waste — In the event of accidental release of any radioactive material resulting in personnel, surface or environmental contamination, the Radiological Safety Officer shall — (a) take steps to arrange for the immediate decontamination of the affected personnel and areas and other remedial measures as required;

(b) inform immediately the employer and the competent authority; details of the incident, remedial measures initiated and programme for disposal of contaminated material, if any.

15. Special provisions for installations such as Hospitals and Tracer Research Laboratories — (1) Persons using small amounts of radioisotopes of very short effective half life (such as in medical practice and tracer applications) may submit their application in Form V for authorisation to dispose of radioactive waste.

(2) Without prejudice to the generality of these rules, a person thus authorised may dispose of wastes containing short lived radioisotopes, contaminated materials and contaminated effluents, in accordance with the procedures and conditions laid down in the schedule.

16. Prior approval of modifications — Any modification to any installation for the disposal of radioactive waste or any change in the working conditions therein, shall be done only with the approval of the competent authority.

17. Power to suspend or cancel an authorisation — The competent authority may cancel an authorisation issued under these rules or suspend it for such period as it thinks fit, if in its opinion, the authorised person has failed to comply with any of the conditions of the authorisation or with any provisions of the Act or these Rules after giving the authorised person an opportunity to show cause and after recording reasons therefor.

18. Power of the competent authority in the case of cancellation of authorisation — Upon suspension or cancellation of the authorisation and during the pendency of an appeal the competent authority may give directions to the persons whose authorisation has been suspended or cancelled for the safe storage of the radioactive wastes, and such person shall comply with such directions.

19. Authorisation for Existing Installations — Every person presently engaged in disposing of radioactive wastes shall, obtain an authorisation under these rules from the competent authority within six months from the date of coming into force of these rules.

20. Powers to ask for records — In addition to the quarterly reports in Form IV, the authorised person shall submit such periodical reports to the competent authority, as stipulated in the authorisation for ensuring safe disposal of radioactive waste.

21. Appeal — (1) An appeal shall lie, against any order of suspension or cancellation or refusal of an authorisation by the competent authority, to the Central Government. 2) Every appeal shall be in writing and shall be accompanied by a copy of the order appealed against and shall be presented within thirty days of the order passed.