Australian Year Book of International Law 621

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Index Aboriginals 176-7, 188 acquisitive prescription 20 action 83-5 see also force Act of State doctrine 176 Adelaide University 178, 180, 181, 185, 192, 195 Admiralty Islands 45 Adolphhafen 40 Africa 26,58 see also Southwest Africa and Chapter 3 African Commission on Human Rights 110, 113, 117, 118, 120-1 creation and function 104-6, 108. 122-30 African Conference on the Rule of Law (1961) 103, 104 African Court of Human Rights 126, 129 African States African Charter 108-14,118-20, 127-30 United Nations 102-3 Agreement on the Continental Shelf Between Iceland and Jan Mayen (Norway) (1982) 152 Alexander, C.H. 181 American Convention of Human Rights African Charter on human and Peoples' Rights 107-16, 126n41 American Society of International Law 191 Amin, President Idi 116 Ampthill, Lord 28 Anglo-French Continental Shey Case on Delimitation in the English Channel 137-42 146, 147, 155, 173, 174 Anglo-German Boundary Agreement 52,61,62 Anglo-German Commission 54 Angra Pequena 27-30,34 Antarctica 186, 188 Antarctic Treaty 194 apartheid 104 Arabs, Palestine 99 Arafura Sea 132, 134, 148 Arechaga, Judge Jimtnez de 142, 156, 1568, 164 Ashmore Island 134, 173 Association of the Turkish Minority of Cyprus (KATAK) 69 Atlantic Ocean 141, 173 Attorney-General's Department 192 Australasian colonies 31-2, 33, 34,43,59 Australasian Universities Law Schools Association 194 Australia 12, 14,35, 132-3, 146 Germany in New Guinea 31, 32, 33,36 maritime delimitation 133-5, 148-9, 153, 161, 163, 168-75 plate tectonics 150-1 Solomon Islands 5, 63 Australia-Indonesia Boundary Agreement (1972) 134, 151, 169-70, 172 Australian Bill of Rights 190 Australian colonies see Australasian colonies Australian International Law News 192 Australian Labor Party 190 Australian Law 182, 1867, 188, 190, 196 Australian National University 182, 184, 185 192, 195 Australian Year Book of International Law 191 Bailey, Sir Kenneth 180, 191 Bangladesh 91 "Banjul Charter" see African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights Basic Structure of the Republic of Cyprus 72, 73.74 Basic Articles 73, 85 Biafra 9 1,99 Bismarck Archipelago 2, 5, 6 see also New Britain Archipelago Bismarck, Herbert 28-9 Bismarck, Otto von 4,41,52,62 Africa 7 Angra Pequena 28,30 Britain in New Guinea 2,46,49, 52 colonial policy 32, 33, 35 German Protectorate 50, 53, 54,55, 61 Northern Solomons 63 Bismarck, Wilhelm 34 Bongu 24 Bougainville 1, 2, 5,63n27, 65 Bridge, Captain 48 Britain see United Kingdom British Protectorate 47,48,54, 55, 58-9,61 defining of 52, 53,60 Buka 1,2,5,63n27 Burmah Oil 135 Cairo Seminar (1969) 104-5 Canada 137, 155, 159 Caroline Islands I Cartier Island 134, 173 Case Concerning the Continental Shey(Libyan Arab Jamahiriya-Malta) see Libya-Malta case Case Concerning the Continental Shelf (TunisiaLibyan Arab Jamahiri) see Tunisia-Libya case Challis Chair of International Law and Jurisprudence 179, 190, 181, 196 Channel Islands 40, 173 622 Australian Year Book of International Law Charteris, A.H. 180, 181 children's rights 114 Choiseul 1,5,64,65 Christmas Island 133, 169, 174 civilrights 106-14, 119, 121-2, 128, 129, 183 129, 183 CKTP see Cyprus Turkish Party clawback provision 109-13, 122, 128, 129 Cobbett, Pitt 178, 179, 181 Colombia 16 1, 162 colonialism 104 colonies 6-8, 17 common law 177 Commonwealth Public Service 194 Congo Conference 16,52 "conspiracy theory" 2,4,3 1,35n12,65 Constantinhafen 39,40,41 constitutional law 178, 179 continental shelf delimitation 135-55,169-74 169-74 exclusive economic zones 15662, 163-8 163-8 Cook Islands 161 Corfu Channel case 95 Costa Rica 161 Cuba 161 cultural rights 113, 118-22, 128, 129 customary internationallaw 149, 171, 172 continental shelf delimitation 135-42, 146, 147, 154 exclusive economic zones 162, 163, 168 customary law African culture 1 12, 1 16 Cypriot National Guard 76, 77 Cyprus Convention 68 Cyprus, Republic of 75,81,82,90,91,92 creation of 80, 8 1 constitution 71-5, 85 coup in 78,82 Treaty of Alliance 88-9 Treaty of Guarantee 85, 86, 100 Cyprus Turkish Party 69 Dallmann, Captain 32, 451149 Davis, Captain E.H.M. 21 declaratory theory 92 decolonization 70,98,99, 187 Denktash, Rauf 67,79 Denmark 138 D'Entrecasteaux Islands 47-8,50,51-2,55,56, Duke of York Islands 3 1,39,44,45 Dutch East Indies 132 East Cape British Protectorate 47,48, 55, 58, 60 German Protectorate 50,51,52,57 East New Guinea 33, 53,59n16 East Timor 1345 economicrights 113-14, 118-21, 128, 129 English Channel 139, 174 enosis68,71,78,81,82 definition 67,69 plebiscite 69, 70 Treaties of Alliance and Guarantee 73, 89 Turkish Cypriots 74,78 EOKA see Ethnici Organosis Kyprion Agoniston EOKA-B 78 equidistance principle 13844, 148, 153-62 167. 168. 172 equitable principles 13847, 154, 159-64. 167, 172, 174 equity mantimedelimitation 131, 144, 145, 161, 167 Erskine, Commander 3, 42-3, 47-9 "Erskine Proclamation" 22, 48, 61 Ethiopia 116 Ethnici Organosis Kyprion Agoniston (EOKA) 70 European Commission of Human Rights 124n36 European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 102, 107-11. 114-16, 126n41 Evatt, Dr H.V. 181 Evensen, Judge 142, 144, 145, 156, 157, 164 exaequo et bono decision 142, 144, 145 exclusive economic zones 141, 146, 155-63 Australia and Indonesia 133, 134, 135, 168- 74 continental shelf delimitation 163-8 ex injuria non oritur jus 90, 100 extra-territoriality 187 federalism 187 Fiji 14 Finsch, Dr Otto 31, 32,62 land acquisition in New Guinea 3-5,23-4, 3941.50.51-2.66 59 Finschhafen 41,45 Department of Foreign Affairs 180, 192, 193, fisheries 135, 151, 163, 168, 172 1945 exclusive economic zones 161, 162, 165 Derby, Lord 28, 30, 31, 37,47 Fitzmaurice, Judge 93, 191 derogation 109, 110, 128 flag-hoisting 2, 23,42-6,47, 59, 62 development right 11 3, 1 19-20, 129 British 42-4, 49 Dillard, Judge 95 disarmament 196 domestic law 101, 109-10, 11 1 German 3444-6,54,63-4,66 force 91 international law 82-8 Index 623 Treaty of Alliance 88-9 foreign state law 187, 188 France 5,34, 176 maritime delimitation 13941, 161, 162 Friedman, Wolfgang 18 1 Friedrich Wilhelmshafen 40, 41,45 Geneva Convention on the Continental Shelf (1958) 13541, 146, 149, 154-5, 159, 160, 164, 174 Geneva Protocol of 1924 8 1 German Neu Guinea Kompagnie see New Guinea Kompagnie German Southwest Africa see Southwest Africa German Trading and Plantation Company 44,45 Germany, Federal Republic of 138 Ghana 108 Gilbert Islands 21 Gladstone, William 30 Goldie, L. F. E. 182 Government Legal Service 194 Granville, Lord 49,58,59 Africa 28,30 Britain in New Guinea 37-8, 47, 54,55, 57 German in New Guinea 4,35-6,53,60 Greece 70,71, 82 Cyprus 68-70,75,84 Treaties of Alliance and Guarantee 83, 85, 88-9 Zurich Conference 72,84 Greek Cypriots 77,78,79, 89 Cyprus constitution 745 enosis 67,68,69,70,71 Greek Orthodox Church 69 Greek War of Independence 68 "Green Line" 76 Greig, D.W. 185, 191 Grivas, Commander G. 77,78 Gros, Judge 159 GulfofMaine case 137, 158-60, 166 Gumbu 24 Hague Academy of International Law 191 Haiti 161, 162 Hansemann, A. von 29,314,37,50,51, 63n27 Hatzfeld, Count 33n2, 34, 35, 51 Heard Island 161 Helsinki Act 117 Hernsheim see Messrs Hernsheim & Co. High Court of Australia 188 humanitarian law 184, 185 human rights 98,99, 100, 189, 190 law studies 185, 187 Iceland 137, 152-3, 166, 174, 175 "incidents of accession" 68 independence 9&2 India91, 161, 162 indigenous rights 177 individualrights 102116, 103, 106-15, 121, 128 Indonesia 132, 1334, 135, 148-53, 163, 168- 75 lnstitut de Droit International 191 International Convention for the Elimination of all Forms of Racial Discrimination (1965) 190 International Court of Justice 93-5, 137, 146, 147, 166, 19C-1 continental shelf delimitation 147, 155 exclusive economic zones 156, 158-60, 167 natural prolongation 149, 164 North Sea cases 140-1, 149 International Convenant on Civil and Political Rights (1966) 110, 112-13, 120, 125, 187, 190 International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) 102n6, 114, 120, 125 international economic law 185, 196 international law 19,22, 178, 179 continental shelf delimitation 144, 150, 151, 154, 166, 167 exclusive economic zones 163, 166, 167 force, use of 86, 87 see also force human rights 106, 110, 114, 119-20, 128 maritime delimitation 131, 138, 139, 145, 150, 168-75 nationalization 1 18, 129 sovereignty 7-10, 10-12, 16, 18-19, 62-3 Turkish Cypriot unilateral declaration of independence 8G2,89-92,96 International Law Association 192 International Law Commission 138, 188, 191, 194 international relations 184 Australia 180, 181, 189 intertemporal law 170-1 Island of Palmas arbitration 17 1 Jan Mayen Island 137, 152-3, 166, 174, 175 Japan 133, 137, 151-2, 153, 166 Java 132, 169, 174 Java Trench 150 Jerba 146 Jessup International Law Moot 192, 193 Johnson, D.H.N. 185 ioint develo~ment zones 152. 153. 165-6. 172 Human Rights Commission 190 judicial decision 13748, 15663, 166, 167 Huon Gulf 47-9,51,52,55,57,58,60-1 jurisprudence 179 Hurd Deep 14 1, 149 hydrocarbons 134, 167 Kaiser Wilhelmsland 6,23,62 624 Australian Year Book of International Law KATAK see Association of the Turkish Minority of Cyprus Katanga 91,99 Kelp Structure 135, 175 Kerguelen Island 16 1 Kerkennah Islands 146 Korea, Rupublic of 137, 151-2, 153, 166 Korendu-Mana 24 Kyprianou, Spyros 79 La Trobe University 183 Law of the sea 131, 184, 185, 187 see also United Nations Convention of the Law of the Sea law reform 189 law schools 178, 180, 182 curricula 183-5, 1867, 189 teachers 185-6, 189, 193, 194, 195-6 League of Nations 179 Ledra Palace Hotel 76,77 legal aid 108 Liberal-National Country Party Coalition 190 Libya-Malta case 137, 146-7, 155-60, 166, 174 166, 174 London Conference (1964) 75 Long Island 46,48,52n84,55,61 Louisiade Group, 46,48,55 Liideritz, 27-8, 30, 32 Maclay Coast 38,60,61 McWhinney, Edward 182 Madang 66 see also Friedrich Wilhelmshafen Makada 42,44 Makarios 111, Archbishop 69,71,75,77,78 Malet, Sir E. 46,56,59 Malta 146, 147 Marshall Islands 1, 45 Martin Place Papers 192 Marx, Lieutenant 46 Matupi 24,41-2,44,45,66 ~eade 52, 53 Melbourne Universitv 178, 180, 184, 186. 192 Memorandum of understanding between Australia and Indonesia (1981) 172 Messrs Hernsheim & Co. 44,45 minority rights 177, 188 Mioko Harbour 31,39,40,44 Monash University 182, 184 Monrovia Conference (1979) 105-6 Morobe see Adolphhafen Mozambique 116 Miinster, Count 28, 31, 53 Granville 35-6,55,59-60 Muskos, Michael 69 Namibia 94, 1 17 Namibia Opinion 93, 191 nationalization 1 18, 129 natural law 102, 103 natural prolongation 147-53, 167 Australia 170, 174 continental shelf delimitation 138, 141, 143- 4, 165, 168 exclusive economic zones 157, 158, 159, 164, 165, 168 Nauru 1,2 Netherlands, The 138 New Guinea Kompagnie 29,61-2,63,65 land acquisition in New Guinea 3,4, 23,39 New Britain 5,23,35,44-6 New Britain Archipelago 34,41,44-6, 62 German claim 37,52-3,58,59,60 New Caledonia 161 Newcastle University 183 New Georgia 5 New Ireland 35,44,45 see also Bismarck Archipelago New South Wales Institute of Technology Law School 183 New Zealand 12-14, 133, 181 Nicosia 76, 77 Niue 14 Nkrumah, President K. 103 Northern Solomons see Solomon Islands, Northern North Sea Continental Shelf cases 137-8, 14@8, 153, 166 Norway 137, 148, 152-3, 166, 174, 175 Norwegian Trough 148, 149 nuclear non-proliferation 187, 189, 196 Nuclear Tests cases 191, 194 Nyerere, President J. 121 O'Connell, D.P. 181, 186, 191, 194 Oda, Judge- 143, 144-5, 156, 157, 164 Oertzen, von 34, 37, 39, 40, 51 treaties with New Guinea chiefs 24,41,46, 62 oil 133, 172 Okinawa Basin 151 opinio aequitatis 163 opinio juris 162, 166, 167 Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights 102n6, 124, 125 Organisation of American States 87 Organization of African Unity (OAU) 11 1 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 101, 105-6, 110, 123-8 human rights 104, 127, 128, 130 Organization of African Unity Commission on Mediation, Conciliation and Arbitration 126 Organization of African Unity Convention on the Legal Status of African Refugees (1969) 11 1 Ottoman Empire 68-9 Oxford University 18 1 Index 625 Pacific area 1, 5, 12, 14, 33 British and German policy 267, 3&6, 38, 47,54 pacta sunt servanda rule 170 Pakistan 91, 92 Papua New Guinea 65,66, 161 partition 67,71-8 1,89 de fact0 78-9,82,83,89,90 Partition Agreement of 1948 82 peaceful coexistence 78 Pelagian Block 144 Pennefather, Dr F. W. 178 peoples' rights 118-19, 123, 126, 128-9 Perez de Cuellar, Javier 79 Permanent Court of International Justice 8 1 PetrCn, Judge 95 Phillipson, Coleman 180 plate tectonics 146, 15&3, 167, 170 political rights 10614, 119, 121-2, 128, 129 positive law 145 Prescott, J.R.V. 186 private international law 178, 179 Proclamation of Eastern Australia 176 proclamations 23,424,48 proportionality 140, 147, 148, 153, 172 protectorates 612, 17,267,34115,49-50,57 Queen Emma 631127 Queensland University 184 Racial Discrimination Act (1975) 190 Radcliffe, Lord 7 1 rebus sic stantibus doctrine 169-70 recognition 68,92, 96 refugees 76, 11 1-12, 188, 189 Romilly 3, 47 Rook Island 46,48,52n84,55,61 Ross. Lieutenant-Commander 48 Roti 173 Russia 68 Russian-Turkish War (1877) 68 Ryan, Kevin W. 182 Samoa 45 "Samoa Bill" 3 1 Sampson, Nikos 78 San Remo International Institute of Humanitarian law 191 Schering, Captain 24, 37, 44, 45, 46 Schwebel, Judge 147 Scilly Islands 141 sebed 134-5, 161-5, 167-71 Seas and Submerged Lands Act (1973) 133 self-determination 68, 69, 97-100 Cyprus 70,71,72 Turkish Cypriots 72, 80,97 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 117-18, 129 Senegal 108 separation 9 1 Sette-Camara, Judge 158 Sex Discrimination Act (1983) 190 Shortland Islands 1, 5 social rights 113-14, 118-22, 128, 129 Solomon Islands 1,5-6, 35,45 Solomon Islands, Northern 23,63-5 South Africa 94,99, 117 Southern Rhodesia 97 South Sea Island Company see New Guinea Kompagnie Southwest Africa 27-31,32,34,37 South West Africa cases (Second Phase) 191 sovereign rights see sovereignty sovereignty 10-23,40,41n33,62,65, 101, 119 101, 119 Cyprus 68,70,8&1 maritime delimitation 166, 17&1, 175 Spain 1,5 Spender, Sir Percy 191 Spheres of Interest Agreement (1886) 63 Sri Lanka 162 Starke, J.G. 182, 187, 191 statehood 90,92, 186 state practice maritime delimitation 148-53, 155, 160-3, 1668 statutoni law 177 Statute bf the International Court of Justice 160 Stockholm Convention for the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) 190 Stone, Julius 181, 186, 191, 194 Sultan of Turkey 68,69 Sunda Trench 132, 133, 174 Sydney University 178, 179, 180, 182, 184, 185 Tanimbar Island 134 Tanzania 108, 122 territorial integrity 115 Cyprus 72,73,80,86,88-9, 100 territorial sea baselines 133, 164, 167, 173 terrorism 78 Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea 154-5, 157, 167 Third World 121 Thomson, Basil 14 Thursday Island 31 Timor 132, 146, 148, 151 Timor Gap 137, 169, 170, 172, Timor Sea 132, 134, 148, 150, 167 Timor Trough 132, 134, 149, 151, 173 Tonga 14, 161, 162 Torres Strait 161, 175, 177 travauw preparatoires 84,93 treaties 13-14,23-30,41,46,63,66 treaty law 102 treaty making 188, 189 626 Australian Year Book of International Law Treaty of Alliance 72,73,75, 88-90 Treaty of Guarantee 72, 73, 76, 100 Article I1 72, 81, 82 Article IV 83, 84, 85, 86, 87 force, use of 83-8 unilateral declaration of independence 8G3, 89,90 validity of 80-7 Treaty of Lausanne 68,70,7 1 Treaty of Saint Germain 8 1 Treaty of Waitangi 13, 176 trial by jury 177 Tripartite Conference (1955) 71 Tripartite Headquarters 89 Tripolitanian Furrow 144, 146, 149 Truman Proclamation on the Continental Shelf (1945) 136, 143 Tunisia-Libya case 137, 141-6, 148, 1568, 160, 164 Turkey 68-72, 75, 77, 78, 80 invasion of Cyprus 78,79,82,85,86,90 Treaties of Alliance and Guarantee 83, 85, 88-9 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 89,92 Turkish Cypriots 67,68,69,77,78,79,89 Cyprus constitution 74-5 partition 71,72,76-7 self-determination 67-100 unilateral declaration of independence 68, 82- 3,90,92 Turkish Federated State of Cyprus 78-9 Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus 67,68, 80,83 abolishment 86,87, 88-9 international law 89-96 self-determination 97, 100 UNCLOS 111 see Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea unilateral declaration of independence 67-8, 72, 8&3,86,89-92,97, 100 United Kingdom 16,42-3,66, 133 Africa 27-3 1,32 Australia 176, 177, 178, 179, 181, 185 Cyprus 68-75 Eastern New Guinea 31,33,36 Germany in New Guinea 1,2,4,5,31-9,4& 6 1 maritime delimitation 137, 13941, 148, 153 Pacific 14,26,33,34,35 Treaty of Guarantee 82, 83, 84, 85 United Nations Charter 82, 83, 84, 85 force, use of 83-8 humanrights 101, 124 United Nations Commission on Human Rights 104, 105, 124 United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (1982) 153-5, 175 continental shelf delimitation 141, 142, 145, 163-70, 174 exclusive economic zones 156, 158, 163, 165, 174 United Nations Convention Relating to the Status of Refugees (1951) 11 1 United Nations Forces in Cyprus (UNFICYP) 76 United Nations General Assembly 70,79, 181 United Nations Organization 77, 81, 99, 191 African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights 117, 119, 124, 125, 130 United Nations Security Council 79, 80,86,94, 100 Cyprus crisis 75-6,77,84,85,87 decisions of 93-7 Resolution 541 93,96,97 United States of America 1,5, 16,77 maritime delimitation 137, 155, 158, 161 "unity in diversity" 73 University of New South Wales 185, 192, 195 Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) 101, 102 uranium 190 Ushant 141 Valticos, Judge 162 Versailles Conference 179 Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties (1969) 127n48, 136n22, 169 Walfisch Bay 27,28, 29 Wallis and Futuna 162 Werner, Captain von 42 Western Pacific High Commission 33 Wietersheim, Captain von 63, 64 women's rights 114, 115 Woodlark Island 55 Ysabel 1,5,65 Zurich Conference 72-3