Classification of Cyber Crime
From Advocatespedia, The Law Encyclopedia
Cyber- crime is not an old sort of crime to the world. It is defined as any criminal activity which takes place on or over the medium of computers or internet Not only the criminals are causing enormous losses to the society and the government but are also able to conceal their identity to a great extent. There are number of illegal activities which are committed over the internet by technically skilled criminals. Taking a wider interpretation it can be said that, Cybercrime includes any illegal activity where computer or internet is either a tool or target or both. Cybercrime is an uncontrollable evil having its base in the misuse of growing dependence on computers in modern life.Whatsoever the good internet does to us, it has its dark side’s too. Some of the newly emerged cybercrimes are cyber-stalking, cyber-terrorism, e-mail spoofing, e-mail bombing, cyber pornography, cyberdefamation etc. Some conventional crimes may also come under the category of cybercrimes if they are committed through the medium of computer or Internet.
The origins of the internet lie in the military domain. The information society of today is nothing but the culmination of the electronic development and the invention of communication system way back towards the end of the 19th century. After passing through prolonged inventory phases stretching over about a century, in the year 1876, the telephone was patented by Graham Bell. This can be termed as the sapling sowed by him for the fast moving telephonic global communication system of today about more than a century thereafter. Cybercrime first started with hackers trying to break into computer networks. Some did it just for the thrill of accessing high-level security networks, but others sought to gain sensitive, classified material. Eventually, criminals started to infect computer systems with computer viruses, which led to breakdowns on personal and business computers. Computer viruses are forms of code or malware programs that can copy themselves and damage or destroy data and systems. When computer viruses are used on a large scale, like with bank, government or hospital networks, these actions may be categorized as cyber terrorism. Computer hackers also engage in phishing scams, like asking for bank account numbers, and credit card theft.
There are many types of cybercrime prevailing in the system; broadly we can classify them in to four major categories as discussed below:
1. CRIME AGAINST INDIVIDUALS
Cybercrimes carried out against individual people only. The potential mischief of such a crime to the individual person can be greater. Such violations include transmission of Child Explicit entertainment, Harassment of any one with the utilization of a computer, for example, email, Cyber Defamation, Hacking, Revolting presentation, E-mail satirizing, IRC Crime (Internet Transfer Chat), Net Extortion, Malicious code, Trafficking, Dissemination, Posting, Phishing, Credit Card Fraud and Scattering of revolting material including Software Theft
2. CRIME AGAINST PROPERTY
Another classification of cybercrime is that the one against all types of property. Vital component of this sort of offence is that the change is small to the point that it would typically go in secret. These violations incorporate PC vandalism (devastation of others' property), Intellectual Property Crimes, Threatening, Salami Attacks. This sort of crime is regularly pervasive in the monetary establishments or with the end goal of carrying out money related violations
3. CRIME AGAINST ORGANIZATION
The third kind of Cyber-crime classification identify with Cybercrimes against association. Digital Terrorism is one discrete sort of crime in this kind. The development of web has demonstrated that the standard of Cyberspace is being utilized by people and gatherings to weight the universal governments as likewise to threaten the nationals of a nation. This crime clear itself into fear mongering when a human being "splits" into an administration or military looked after site.
4. CRIME AGAINST SOCIETY
The fourth sort of Cyber-crime identify with Cybercrimes against society. In this class fraud, digital psychological oppression, web jacking, contaminating the Youth through Indecent, Money related Crimes; Sale of Illegal Articles, Net Extortion, Digital Contraband, Data Diddling, Salami Attacks, and Logic Bombs sorts of crime is incorporated. Imitation cash notes, income stamps, check sheets and so forth can be manufactured utilizing PCs and astounding scanners and printers. Web Jacking programmers obtain entrance and control over the site of another; even they change the substance of site for satisfying political target or for cash.
Under World Common Law
Acts wherein a computer or technology is a tool for an unlawful act. The kind of activities usually involves a modification of conventional crime by using informational technology. Here is the list of prevalent cybercrimes all over the world some of them widely spread and some are not prevalent on larger scale. The cyber-crimes are discussed below;
• Unauthorised Access- Knowingly and intentionally use or access without prevision or consent of the owner or possessor whole or any part of a computer systems, computer network to commit any cybercrime as denied above is unauthorized access. This is like criminal trespass committed in the real world.
• Cyber Hacking- Hacking means destruction or alteration of any information residing in a computer resource i.e. computer resource of tangible or intangible.
• Cyber Pornography- Pornography on the internet may take various forms. It may include hosting of website containing some obscene or prohibited material or use of computer for producing obscene materials.
• Cyber Terrorism- Cyber terrorism has domestic as well as international ramifications. It may be defined as the premeditated use of disruptive activities or the threat there of in cyber space with the intention to further social, ideological, religious, political or similar objectives or to intimidate any person in furtherance of such objectives,
• Cyber Stalking- In stalking persistent message are sent to unwilling mental torture. Sending of unsolicited e-mail or spamming is an infringement of might of privacy.
• Flowing of virus- Flowing of programmed through computer network by human agent such as virus, Trojan Horse, works, Logic Bombs of cause damage, alter, debate destroy computer, computer system, computer network, computer data base are also cybercrime
• E-mail Fraud (Spamming)- E-mail is an inexpensive and popular device for distributing, fraudulent message to potential victims, This technical not only helps of to assume someone else’ identity, but also helps to hide one’s own.
• Cyber Defamation- Defamation is defined is as an international false communication either published or publicly spoken, that injustice another’s reputation or good name:. The gift of defamation is actual or presumed damage to reputation flowing from publication.
• Email Spoofing- A hacker logging in to a computer of under was to his victim often will login under a different identity. This is called spoofing. The hacker able to the by, having previously actual password or having created a new identity by fooling the computer into thinking he is the system’s operator.
• Money Laundering- It is a kind of cybercrime in which money is illegally downloaded in transit there is a phenomenal increase in the incidence of this cyber offence
• Computer Vandalism- Password or having created a new identity by fooling the computer into thinking has the system operator. Literally speaking, vandalism means destroying or damaging property of another.
• Data Diddling- This offence involves changing or reusing of data in sub till of ways which makes of it different to put the data subtitle ways which data back of or be curtain of its accuracy. This is resorted to for the purpose of illegal monetary gains or for community of fraud of financial scam.
• Page Jacking- Page Jacking involves the appropriation of web site description key words, of meta tare from other sites.
• Cyber Theft- The theft of information or identity e.g. name, date of birth, social security Number, credit card Number, password are increasing day by day in cyberspace with other cybercrimes.
• Salami Attacks- This kind of crime is normally prevalent in the financial institutions of or for the purpose of committing financial crimes. An important feature of this type of offence is that the alteration of so small that it would be normally goes unnoticed.
• Web Jacking- In these kinds of offense of the hacker gain access and control over the website of another. This is may be done for fulfilling of political objectives for money. The web jack ling is a process where are control of over the site of another is made backer by some considerable of it.
• Internet Time Thefts- Normally in these kind of theft the internet surfing housed is of the victim of are used up by another person. This is done of by giving access to the login ID and the Password.
Case Law Summaries
Mark Vartanyan, a.k.a “Kolypto”
Mark Vartanyan, also known as “Kolypto,” who was extradited to the U.S. from Norway in December 2016. Vartanyan later plead guilty March 20, 2017 for his role as a Citiadel malware toolkit co-developer and was sentenced July 19, 2017 to five years in federal prison. The hacker was charged with computer fraud and was responsible for developing, improving, maintaining and distributing the malware between August 2012 and January 2013 and again between April 2014 and June 2014. During this time period the malware stole the financial account credentials and personally identifiable information from victim computer networks affecting nearly 11 million computers worldwide causing more than $500 million in loses. Marcus Hutchins a.k.a “MalwareTech”
The WannaCryransomware attack took the globe by storm infecting more than 300,000 computers in over 150 countries worldwide. Several hospitals, local municipalities and other networks containing the EternalBlue exploit were impacted during the initial outbreak of the attack which started May 12, 2017, until Marcus Hutchins a.k.a “MalwareTech” accidentally pulled the plug on the malware. By registering a domain name he found in the code of the ransomware, the researcher effectively halted the initial outbreak of the malware May 15, 2017 and slowed the spread of infection. Hutchins' victory however, was short lived after the researcher was arraigned in a federal Wisconsin court for allegedly authoring a banking trojan called Kronos. Hutchins plead not guilty and is currently awaiting trial although DOJ attorneys have since filed a "Motion to Revoke," or an appeal of the magistrate's order to a district court judge.
PyotrLevashov, suspected spam king
The 36-year-old man, PyotrLevashov, was taken into custody on April 7, 2017 while on vacation in Barcelona in a joint operation between Spanish and U.S. authorities on suspicions of being a notorious spam king and for his involvement with the Kelihos Botnet. On April 20, 2017 Levashov was charged in an indictment with one count of causing intentional damage to a protected computer, one count of conspiracy, one count of accessing protected computers in furtherance of fraud, one count of wire fraud, one count of threatening to damage a protected computer, two counts of fraud in connection with email and one count of aggravated identity theft. Authorities say the Kelihos botnet was used to generate and distribute more than 2,500 unsolicited spam e-mails that advertised various criminal schemes.