Cybercrime investigation: Position in india

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Every crime has its impact specifically on society, nation and the world to the great extent. By the surveillance of cybercrime and its phenomenon it is exposed that like former crimes it has badly affected social life of humans. To understand the influence of cybercrime, it is necessary to investigate the impact of two things computer technology and internet on people as cybercrime is no doubt originating out of these. There are inherent challenges to the field of IT security and services through individuals and critical infrastructure. Socially, people are now more open to communicate and interrelate with others compared to past which widen the objectives from the personal relations to the professional ones. Today, there is no single reason for the people to interact through internet but thousands. The advantage behind this mediator is its collaborating and speedy communication which is lacked in other medium of communications. Technological innovation is an evolutionary process. Personally, the researchers also find IT to be interesting, intriguing and powerful, at a same time challenging, confusing and risky. Speedy advancements in information and communication technology have shaped a suitable channel to large resources of information for people. Nevertheless, with such advantages, there would be cases of misuse for the wrong drive. Cyber-terrorism is and will undoubtedly continue to be a constant issue for governments that must be handled attentively for national security. Terrorism has taken on a new structure and it is no longer limited to an attempt to just create mass demolition with the use of violence. Cyberspace is the new horizon which is controlled by machine for information and communication amongst human beings across the world. Therefore, crimes committed in cyberspace are to be considered as cybercrimes. In broader sense, cybercrime is a crime on the internet which includes cyber stalking, gambling, hacking, terrorism, fraud, cyber theft, pornography, flowing of viruses etc. Cybercrime means unlawful act wherein the computer is used as a tool or a target or else both. Any use of a computer as an instrument to further illegal ends, like doing fraud, child pornography and intellectual property, stealing identities or privacy violation. Cybercrime is defined as a crime in which a computer is the object of the crime (hacking, phishing, spamming etc.) or is used as a tool to commit an offense. Cybercrime is also known as crime against an individual or an organization where the committer of the crime uses a computer or any computer aided technology for entirely or little amount of time. Federal Bureau of Investigation’s 2010 statistics demonstrate that the increase of cybercrime in the world. This report on “Cyber Investigations” highlights four categories towards cybercrime as given below; 4, 5

 Cybercrimes against children

 Theft of intellectual property

 Publication and intentional dissemination of malware

 National and international Internet fraud

Cybercrime is evolving as a serious threat. Worldwide regulatory authorities have started to react. Initiatives to control cross border cyber threats are taking shape. Indian police has initiated separate cyber cells at all major locations in the country as well as started educating the personnel. Introducing the cyber law in India supports to lessen the cybercrimes to some amount, through cyber law many people get arrested and they are now behind the bars, but the rate of occurrences leaves significant impact on the society. Cybercrime security system requirements are continuously increasing everyday as crimes rate is swelling.

HISTORY

During the period of 1950s, it would be an astonished feeling for everyone who uses palmtops and microchips today, to know that the first successful computer was built, and the size of the computer was so big that it takes the space of entire room and they were too expensive to operate. The functioning of these computer was not understandable to large number of people and only select people with expertise had direct access to such computers and has the knowledge to operate them. The Personal computers become cheaper and become household item at the start of 21st century in India. The Internet was first started by the US Department of Defence, after World War II with the idea to have a network which could work in the event of disaster or war and securely transmit information. The First Network was known as ARPANET, with the development of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, World Wide Web and Hypertext the internet become rage all over the world. With the growth of Internet, the quality and variety of information grew. However, at that point nobody anticipated the opportunities’ the internet is going to provide the technology savvy criminals. In India the internet services started by the state-owned Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited in year 1995 and in 1998 the government has ended the monopoly of VSNL and market is opened to private operators. At that point, the internet users in India was 0.1% of total population, and now India has become the 2nd largest country in terms of internet users after china with 33.22% people using internet. The era of modern computers, however, began with the analytical engine of Charles Babbage. In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard’s employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cybercrime. In the case of computer crime, legislators grew increasingly attentive in the 1980s as businesses became more dependent upon computerization and as catalyst event cases exposed significant vulnerabilities to computer crime violations. Criminals can now easily encrypt information representing evidence of their criminal acts, store the information and even transmit it with little fear of detection by law enforcement. Due to the extraordinary impact of the Internet, a computer crime scene can now span from the geographical point of the victimization (e.g., the victim’s personal computer) to any other point on the planet, further complicating criminal investigative efforts. In effect, computer technology has dramatically altered the criminal justice terrain such that enterprising and opportunistic criminals have consciously turned to the computer to commit their illegal acts in situations in which the computer serves as the instrument of the crime, how the crime is committed, as well as in cases in which the victim’s computer, or computer system, is the target, or objective, of the act. And, as stated above, the presence of new computer technology aids cyber criminals in situations in which the computer’s role is incidental to the crime; situations in which the computer is used to house and protect information that is evidence tying the offender to criminal acts. A commonality among these types of crimes is that the offender, to a great degree, depends upon the lack of technological skills of law enforcement to successfully commit the offenses and escape undetected. The technological treasures that have improved the quality of our lives, however, can reasonably be viewed as a doubled-edged sword. While computer technology has opened doors to enhanced conveniences for many, this same technology has also opened new doors for criminals. During the period of 1950s, it would be an astonished feeling for everyone who uses palmtops and microchips today, to know that the first successful computer was built, and the size of the computer was so big that it takes the space of entire room and they were too expensive to operate. The functioning of these computer was not understandable to large number of people and only select people with expertise had direct access to such computers and has the knowledge to operate them. The Personal computers become cheaper and become household item at the start of 21st century in India. The Internet was first started by the US Department of Defence, after World War II with the idea to have a network which could work in the event of disaster or war and securely transmit information. The First Network was known as ARPANET, with the development of Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, World Wide Web and Hypertext the internet become rage all over the world. With the growth of Internet, the quality and variety of information grew. However, at that point nobody anticipated the opportunities’ the internet is going to provide the technology savvy criminals. In India the internet services started by the state-owned Videsh Sanchar Nigam Limited in year 1995 and in 1998 the government has ended the monopoly of VSNL and market is opened to private operators. At that point, the internet users in India was 0.1% of total population, and now India has become the 2nd largest country in terms of internet users after china with 33.22% people using internet. The era of modern computers, however, began with the analytical engine of Charles Babbage. In 1820, Joseph-Marie Jacquard, a textile manufacturer in France, produced the loom. This device allowed the repetition of a series of steps in the weaving of special fabrics. This resulted in a fear amongst Jacquard’s employees that their traditional employment and livelihood were being threatened. They committed acts of sabotage to discourage Jacquard from further use of the new technology. This is the first recorded cybercrime. In the case of computer crime, legislators grew increasingly attentive in the 1980s as businesses became more dependent upon computerization and as catalyst event cases exposed significant vulnerabilities to computer crime violations. Criminals can now easily encrypt information representing evidence of their criminal acts, store the information and even transmit it with little fear of detection by law enforcement. Due to the extraordinary impact of the Internet, a computer crime scene can now span from the geographical point of the victimization (e.g., the victim’s personal computer) to any other point on the planet, further complicating criminal investigative efforts. In effect, computer technology has dramatically altered the criminal justice terrain such that enterprising and opportunistic criminals have consciously turned to the computer to commit their illegal acts in situations in which the computer serves as the instrument of the crime, how the crime is committed, as well as in cases in which the victim’s computer, or computer system, is the target, or objective, of the act. And, as stated above, the presence of new computer technology aids cyber criminals in situations in which the computer’s role is incidental to the crime; situations in which the computer is used to house and protect information that is evidence tying the offender to criminal acts. A commonality among these types of crimes is that the offender, to a great degree, depends upon the lack of technological skills of law enforcement to successfully commit the offenses and escape undetected. The technological treasures that have improved the quality of our lives, however, can reasonably be viewed as a doubled-edged sword. While computer technology has opened doors to enhanced conveniences for many, this same technology has also opened new doors for criminals.

CURRENT SCENARIO

According to National Crime Record Bureau, India, statistical information there is continuous growth in the cybercrimes in India. Every year several cases were reported under various categories. Analysis on cybercrimes made by the researchers is composed as crimes reported year wise, section wise, head wise etc. Facts highlighting the cybercrime scenario in India. To understand escalation of cybercrimes in India, researchers chose to analyze the impact of cyber security by exploring various types of crimes under IT act and IPC in the period of 2002-2013. Though most of the incidences were unreported due to unawareness and other reasons like defamation.

LOCALIZATION OF DIFFERENT SERVICES PROVIDERS WITH RESPECT TO INDIAN STATE

Cybercrimes are a new class of crimes which are increasing day by day due to extensive use of internet these days. To combat the crimes related to internet The Information Technology Act, 2000 was enacted with prime objective to create an enabling environment for commercial use of I.T. The IT Act specifies the acts which have been made punishable. The Indian Penal Code, 1860 has also been amended to take into its purview cyber. Cyber Forensics labs: The numbers of cyber forensics labs are established in India and they are:

TABLE II :

Central Lab 7

State Lab 30

Regional Lab 50

District Lab 44

Some institutes are:

1. National Institute of criminology and forensic Science (NICFS) New Delhi: -Standing Operating Procedure for Cyber Crime Investigation. -Holds combined cyber training for police/prosecution/Judiciary.

2. Bureau of Police Research & Development (BPR&D): - Collaboration with IITs/IIMs/Institutes of excellence NPTDC at IIT Delhi

3. NCETIS, IIT Mumbai. - National standing task force of Technology in policing at BPRD