E-Governance: Analysis of need and scope
From Advocatespedia, The Law Encyclopedia
E-governance, expands to electronic governance, is the integration of information and communication technology (ICT) in all the processes, with the aim of enhancing government ability to address the needs of the general public. Electronic governance or E-governance is the application of information and communication transaction, integration of various standards done in system and services. E-governance is a relatively new concept which has been gaining considerable importance over the past few years. Today, it has become possible to implement significant changes into how governments around the world functions with the assistance of information technology (IT). E-government, also known as Electronic government or digital government – the act called as e-governance, has become very common terminology now days. However, there are so many different views and definitions of e-government (also written as e-govt., correspondingly e-governance.) whatever the differences in views from different people but it is the approach in converting every govt. activities in digital form and providing these activities in terms of services to the citizens or stakeholders. E-governance is the application of information and communication technologies to transform the efficiency, effectiveness, transparency and accountability of informational and transactional exchanges with in government, between government and govt. agencies of national, state, municipal and local levels, citizen and businesses, and to empower citizens through access and use of information.
Today’s the world of change and revolution or a worldwide in information and communications technologies is occurring. The internets, fundamentally changing our lives-affecting the way we work, learn and interact. Governments around the world are recognizing the values of e-government. Things which are not effective are considered as mortal. The rise of e-govt. has been one of the most striking development of IT by governments emerged in the nineties, with the advent of the World Wide Web. The technology as well as e-governance initiatives have come a long way since then. Recognizing the increasing importance of electronics, the govt. of India established the Department of Electronics in 1970. The subsequent establishment of the National Informatics centre (NIc) in 1997 was the first major step towards e-governance in India as it brought ‘information’ and its communication in focus. However, the main thrust for e-governance was provided by the launching of NIcNET in 1987- the national satellite-based computer network. This was followed by the launch of the District Information System of the National Informatics centre (DISNIc) program to computerize all district offices in the country for which free hardware and software was offered to the state government. Andhra Pradesh was the first state in the country to take up e-government in a systemic manner. In e-governance, government make the best possible use of technology to communicate and provide information in terms of national websites such as ‘india.gov.in’, ‘MyGov.gov.in’ and ‘Dial.gov’ etc. these websites provide information about the department concerned its aims, citizen charters, organizational details and online grievance facilities available. These days electricity, water, phone and all kinds of bill paid over the internet. These e-services lead to speed of public services, reduce duplication and increase citizen participation in the government. In India, there are multiple challenges to e-Governance projects due to insufficient structure, cyber security, poverty, multilingual, lack of awareness less literacy rate and other technology related issues.
The genesis of ‘computerization in governance’ efforts in the Indian context can be traced to the early 1960s. It was in the 1990s, however that the e-government discourse emerged, in parallel with the liberalization of the country’s economy, in its current form as ‘technology-mediated administrative process-restructuring to promote good governance’. The economic reforms adopted by the government of India in 1991 to ward off an imminent balance of payment crisis paved the way for a shift in the vision of state-led development, by which the traditional agenda of socialist planning was replaced by that of ‘good governance for marketed-led growth and administrative efficiency’. In this transition, ICTs emerged as an important policy priority, for catalyzing growth, and enabling systemic reforms in governance structures. It technologies were supplemented by ICT technologies to extend its use for wide sectors applications with policy emphasis on reaching out to the rural areas and taking in greater inputs from NGO’s and private sector as well.
For governments, the more overt motivation to shift from manual processes to IT-enabled processes may increase efficiency in administration and services delivery, but this shit can be conceived as a worthwhile investment with potential for returns.
E-Governance is about the future of how efficiently public authorities engage with citizens, offering services and information in a convenient and secure, yet non-intrusive and easy-to-access way. Here I concluded some key of elements that are crucial for cities to succeed in the widespread desire for heightened security and improved government services.
Facilitate smart services
Delivering services to citizens in a non-intrusive way is at the heart of what public authorities do to maintain their level of satisfaction. Therefore, many governments and local authorities have made efforts to improve service delivery through online portals. As recently organized by the European Commission, electronic identification (eID) is one of the tools to ensure secure access to online services. Citizens can use their mobile device to conduct a variety of interactions with the public authorities, such as:
• Informational and educational services, e.g. emergency alerts
• Interactive services, e.g. register to the local school or library
• Transactional services, e.g. buying tickets to national parks
Protect citizens from cyber crime
Massive data breaches have become a common threat that affects most of us. Hackers apply sophisticated attacks to steal password, capture online-banking, mis use of someone’s identity for fraudulent activities. To protect such kind of activities “cyber life”, a multi factor authentication is needed. Numerous govt. have also considered using public key infrastructure.
A secure and convenient voting system with voter registration and authentication based on eID cards greatly facilitate citizens demonstrating their right to vote and even unable secure online ballots in an anonymized way, preserving their secrecy.
Develop a modern society with financial and social inclusion
E –governance helps to generate operating efficiencies and improve performance. The G20, The United Nations, and The World Bank Group have all recognized financial inclusion, which is targeting the part of the population which has no access to financial products and services such as bank accounts, as an important global development priority.
Reduce waste, fraud and abuse
Government authorities need to make sure the funds available for different programs are mostly used to pay for the specific services or benefits, and not for the overhead involved in administrating them. Smart governance with all its different elements, is a cost-effective way of spending taxpayers money and we think it can play a central role making a better life for more than six billion people.
E-Governance and Law
In India there are different Laws for every individual thing here, I would highlight the prevalent laws in India related to the right of information and privacy, which are the main components of e-Governance. But there is no Data Protection Act in India, the only provision which talks about Data Protection is Section 72 and Section 43 of Information Technology Act 2000, those too doesn’t provide complete protection to e-Governance but talks about the same vaguely. Either there must be amendment in the law to regulate e-Governance or an efficient Legislation to deal with the situation for the effective implementation to reach the purpose and the objects for which e-governance came into existence.