Myanmar Other Common Law Jurisdictions

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CONTENTS

CHAPTER PAGE - Preamble 1. Basic Principles of the Union 2. State Structure 3. Head of State 4. Legislature 5. Executive 6. Judiciary 7. Defence Services 8. Citizen, Fundamental Rights and Duties of the Citizens 9. Election 10. Political Parties 11. Provisions in the State of Emergency 12. Amendment of the Constitution 13. State Flag, State Seal, National Anthem and the Capital 14. Transitory Provisions 15. General Provisions


Preamble

Myanmar is a Nation with magnificent historical traditions. We, the National people, have been living in unity and oneness, setting up an independent sovereign State and standing tall with pride. Due to colonial intrusion, the Nation lost her sovereign power in 1885. The National people launched anti-colonialist struggles and National liberation struggles, with unity in strength, sacrificing lives and hence the Nation became an independent sovereign State again on 4th January 1948. In order to gain independence speedily, the Constitution was hastily drafted, and it was adopted by the Constitutent Assembly on 24th September 1947. After attaining independence, Parliamentary Democracy System was practised in the State in accord with the Constitution of the Union of Myanmar. However, as democratic system could not be effectively materialized, the new Constitution of the Socialist Republic of the Union of Myanmar was drafted based on the single party system, and after holding a National Referendum, a socialist democratic State was set up in 1974. The Constitution came to an end because of the general situation occurred in 1988. Later, due to public aspirations, the State Peace and Development Council made efforts to adopt multi-party democratic system and market economy in accord with the National situation. As an enduring Constitution, that guarantees long-term benefits, has become essential for the future nation, the State Peace and Development Council convened the National Convention in 1993. Persons who are well experienced in various aspects of politics, security, administration, economics, social and law as well as National races representatives of all townships in the Nation took part in the National Convention. Despite many difficulties and disturbances encountered the National Convention, it was unwaveringly reconvened in 2004 in accord with the seven-step Roadmap adopted in 2003. As the National Convention was able to adopt the Basic Principles and Detailed Basic Principles for formulating a Constitution, it successfully concluded on 3rd September 2007. We, the National people, drafted this Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar in accord with the Basic Principles and Detailed Basic Principles laid down by the National Convention. We, the National people, firmly resolve that we shall : - steadfastly adhere to the objectives of non-disintegration of the Union, nondisintegration of National solidarity, and perpetuation of sovereignty; - stalwartly strive for further burgeoning the eternal principles namely justice, liberty, equality and perpetuation of peace and prosperity of the National people; - uphold racial equality, living eternally in unity fostering the firm Union Spirit of true patriotism; - constantly endeavour to uphold the principles of peaceful co-existence among nations with a view to having world peace and friendly relations among nations. DO HEREBY ADOPT this Constitution of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar through a nation-wide referendum on the Tenth day of Kasone Waning, 1370 M.E. (The Twenty-Ninth day of May, 2008 A.D.)

Chapter I - Basic Principles of the Union

The Republic of the Union of Myanmar 1. Myanmar is an independent sovereign Nation. 2. The State shall be known as the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. 3. The State is where multi-National races collectively reside. 4. The Sovereign power of the Union is derived from the citizens and is in force in the entire country. 5. The territory of the State shall be the land, sea, and airspace which constitutes its territory on the day this Constitution is adopted.

Basic Principles 6. The Union’s consistent objectives are : (a) non-disintegration of the Union; (b) non-disintegration of National solidarity; (c) perpetuation of sovereignty; (d) flourishing of a genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system; (e) enhancing the eternal principles of Justice, Liberty and Equality in the Union and; (f) enabling the Defence Services to be able to participate in the National political leadership role of the State. 7. The Union practises genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system. 8. The Union is constituted by the Union system. 9. (a) The existing seven Divisions are designated as seven Regions and the existing seven States are designated as seven States. Those seven Regions and seven States are of equal status. (b) The names of those seven Regions and seven States are retained as they exist. (c) If it is desired to change the name of a Region or a State, it shall be done so with the enactment of a law after ascertaining the desire of citizens residing in the Region or State concerned. 10. No part of the territory constituted in the Union such as Regions, States, Union Territories and Self-Administered Areas shall ever secede from the Union. 11. (a) The three branches of sovereign power namely, legislative power, executive power and judicial power are separated, to the extent possible, and exert reciprocal control, check and balance among themselves. (b) The three branches of sovereign power, so separated are shared among the Union, Regions, States and Self-Administered Areas. 12. (a) The legislative power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, Region Hluttaws and State Hluttaws. Legislative power stipulated by this Constitution shall be shared to the Self-Administered Areas. (b) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw consisting of two Hluttaws, one Hluttaw elected on the basis of township as well as population, and the other on an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States. 13. There shall be a Region Hluttaw in each of the seven Regions, and a State Hluttaw in each of the seven States. 14. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws include the Defence Services personnel as Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-inChief of the Defence Services in numbers stipulated by this Constitution. 15. For National races with suitable population, National races representatives are entitled to participate in legislature of Regions or States and Self-Administered Areas concerned. 16. The Head of the Union and the Head of Executive of the Union is the President. 17. (a) The executive power of the Union is shared among the Pyidaungsu, Regions and States; Self-Administrative power shall be shared between SelfAdministered Areas as prescribed by this Constitution. (b) In the executive of the Union, Regions, States, Union Territory, SelfAdministered Areas and districts, Defence Services personnel, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services to undertake responsibilities of the defence, security, border administration, so forth, shall be included. (c) For National races of which representatives are so permitted to participate in legislature of Regions, States or Self-Administered Areas in accord with Section 15, such representatives are to be permitted to participate, mainly, to undertake their National races affairs. 18. (a) The judicial power of the Union is shared among the Supreme Court of the Union, High Courts of the Regions, High Courts of the States and Courts of different levels including Courts of Self-Administered Areas. (b) There shall be one Supreme Court of the Union. The Supreme Court of the Union is the highest Court of the Republic. (c) The Supreme Court of the Union has powers to issue writs. (d) A High Court of the Region or State is constituted in each Region or State. 19. The following are prescribed as judicial principles : (a) to administer justice independently according to law; (b) to dispense justice in open court unless otherwise prohibited by law; (c) to guarantee in all cases the right of defence and the right of appeal under law. 20. (a) The Defence Services is the sole patriotic defence force which is strong, competent and modern. (b) The Defence Services has the right to independently administer and adjudicate all affairs of the armed forces. (c) The Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services is the Supreme Commander of all armed forces. (d) The Defence Services has the right to administer for participation of the entire people in Union security and defence. (e) The Defence Services is mainly responsible for safeguarding the nondisintegration of the Union, the non-disintegration of National solidarity and the perpetuation of sovereignty. (f) The Defence Services is mainly responsible for safeguarding the Constitution 21. (a) Every citizen shall enjoy the right of equality, the right of liberty and the right of justice, as prescribed in this Constitution. (b) No citizen shall be placed in custody for more than 24 hours without the permission of a Court. (c) Every citizen is responsible for public peace and tranquility and prevalence of law and order. (d) Necessary law shall be enacted to make citizens’ freedoms, rights, benefits, responsibilities and restrictions effective, steadfast and complete. 22. The Union shall assist : (a) to develop language, literature, fine arts and culture of the National races; (b) to promote solidarity, mutual amity and respect and mutual assistance among the National races; (c) to promote socio-economic development including education, health, economy, transport and communication, so forth, of less-developed National races. 23. The Union shall : (a) enact necessary laws to protect the rights of the peasants; (b) assist peasants to obtain equitable value of their agricultural produce. 24. The Union shall enact necessary laws to protect the rights of workers. 25. The Union shall assist to promote the interests of the intellectuals and intelligentsia. 26. (a) Civil Services personnel shall be free from party politics. (b) The Union shall enact necessary laws for Civil Services personnel to have security and sufficiency of food, clothing and shelter, to get maternity benefits for married women in service, and to ease livelihood for welfare of retired Service personnel. 27. The Union shall assist development, consolidation and preservation of National culture. 28. The Union shall : (a) earnestly strive to improve education and health of the people; (b) enact the necessary law to enable National people to participate in matters of their education and health; (c) implement free, compulsory primary education system; (d) implement a modern education system that will promote all-around correct thinking and a good moral character contributing towards the building of the Nation. 29. The Union shall provide inputs, such as technology, investments, machinery, raw materials, so forth, to the extent possible for changeover from manual to mechanized agriculture. 30. The Union shall provide inputs, such as technology, investments, machinery, raw materials, so forth, to the extent possible, for development of industries. 31. The Union shall, to the extent possible, assist to reduce unemployment among the people. 32. The Union shall : (a) care for mothers and children, orphans, fallen Defence Services personnel’s children, the aged and the disabled; (b) ensure disabled ex-Defence Services personnel a decent living and free vocational training. 33. The Union shall strive for youth to have strong and dynamic patriotic spirit, the correct way of thinking and to develop the five noble strengths. 34. Every citizen is equally entitled to freedom of conscience and the right to freely profess and practise religion subject to public order, morality or health and to the other provisions of this Constitution. 35. The economic system of the Union is market economy system. 36. The Union shall : (a) permit all economic forces such as the State, regional organizations, cooperatives, joint-ventures, private individual, so forth, to take part in economic activities for the development of National economy; (b) protect and prevent acts that injure public interests through monopolization or manipulation of prices by an individual or group with intent to endanger fair competition in economic activities; (c) strive to improve the living standards of the people and development of investments; (d) not nationalize economic enterprises; (e) not demonetize the currency legally in circulation. 37. The Union : (a) is the ultimate owner of all lands and all natural resources above and below the ground, above and beneath the water and in the atmosphere in the Union; (b) shall enact necessary law to supervise extraction and utilization of Stateowned natural resources by economic forces; (c) shall permit citizens right of private property, right of inheritance, right of private initiative and patent in accord with the law. 38. (a) Every citizen shall have the right to elect and be elected in accord with the law. (b) Electorate concerned shall have the right to recall elected people’s representatives in accord with the provisions of this Constitution. 39. The Union shall enact necessary law to systematically form political parties for flourishing of a genuine, disciplined multi-party democratic system. 40. (a) If there arises a state of emergency characterized by inability to perform executive functions in accord with the provisions of the Constitution in a Region or a State or a Self-Administered Area, the President is empowered to exercise executive power in that Region, State or Self-Administered Area and, if necessary in doing so, the President is empowered to exerciselegislative powers concerning that Region, State or Self-Administered Area in accord with the provisions of this Constitution. (b) If there arises or there is sufficient reason to arise a state of emergency endangering life and property of the people in a Region, State or SelfAdministered Area, the Defence Services has the right, in accord with the provisions of this Constitution, to prevent that danger and provide protection. (c) If there arises a state of emergency that could cause disintegration of the Union, disintegration of national solidarity and loss of sovereign power or attempts therefore by wrongful forcible means such as insurgency or violence, the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services has the right to take over and exercise State sovereign power in accord with the provisions of this Constitution. 41. The Union practises independent, active and non-aligned foreign policy aimed at world peace and friendly relations with nations and upholds the principles of peaceful coexistence among nations. 42. (a) The Union shall not commence aggression against any nation. (b) No foreign troops shall be permitted to be deployed in the territory of the Union. 43. No Penal law shall be enacted to provide retrospective effect. 44. No penalty shall be prescribed that violates human dignity. 45. The Union shall protect and conserve natural environment. 46. A Constitutional Tribunal shall be set up to interpret the provisions of the Constitution, to scrutinize whether or not laws enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaws and the State Hluttaws and functions of executive authorities of Pyidaungsu, Regions, States and Self-Administered Areas are in conformity with the Constitution, to decide on disputes relating to the Constitution between Pyidaungsu and Regions, between Pyidaungsu and States, among Regions, among States, and between Regions or States and SelfAdministered Areas and among Self-Administered Areas themselves, and to perform other duties prescribed in this Constitution. 47. The Basic Principles set forth in this Chapter, and Chapter 8, Citizen, Fundamental Rights, and Duties of the Citizen, the term “Union” means person or body exercising the legislative or executive authority of the Union under this Constitution according as the context may require. 48. The Basic Principles of the Union shall be the guidance in enacting laws by legislature and in interpreting the provisions of this Constitution and other laws.


Chapter II - State Structure

49. The Union is delineated and constituted by seven Regions, seven States and the Union territories as follows : (a) Kachin State; (b) Kayah State; (c) Kayin State; (d) Chin State; (e) Sagaing Region; (f) Taninthayi Region; (g) Bago Region; (h) Magway Region; (i) Mandalay Region; (j) Mon State; (k) Rakhine State; (l) Yangon Region; (m) Shan State; (n) Ayeyawady Region; and (o) Union territories. 50. (a) Nay Pyi Taw, the capital of the Union, prescribed as Union territory, shall be under the direct administration of the President. (b) If there arises a need to specify areas that have special situations concerning national defence, security, administration and economy, so forth, those areas may be prescribed as Union territories under the direct administration of the President after enacting law. 51. The Union is constituted as follows : (a) villages are organized as village-tract; (b) wards are organized as town or township; (c) village-tracts and wards or towns are organized as township; (d) townships are organized as district; (e) districts are organized as Region or State; (f) townships in a Self-Administered Zone are organized as Self-Administered Zone; (g) townships in a Self-Administered Division are organized as District and such Districts are organized as Self-Administered Division; (h) If there are Self-Administrated Zone or Self-Administered Division in a Region or a State, those Self-Administered Divisions, Self-Administered Zones and Districts are organized as Region or State; (i) Regions, States and Union territories are organized as the Republic. 52. (a) If there arises a need to re-delineate the territorial boundary of the Union, the President shall firstly intimate the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw to ask for the opinion of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (b) The Head of the Pyidaungsu Htuttaw, after receiving the intimation of the President, shall obtain the opinion of the Hluttaw representatives as follows : (i) assenting votes of more than half of the total number of representatives in the Hluttaw, elected in equal numbers from Regions and States; (ii) assenting votes of more than half of the total number of representatives in the Hluttaw, elected as representatives on the basis of township as well as population; (iii) assenting votes of more than half of the total number of representatives of the two Hluttaws from the Region or State involved in the boundary concerned. (c) The Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, after obtaining the assenting votes as mentioned above, shall inform the President for re-delineating the territorial boundary of the Union as necessary. (d) In accord with the above-mentioned procedures, if either of the Hluttaws, or representatives from the Region or State involved in the territorial boundary concerned resolve against re-delineation, the opinion of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be obtained. If three-fourths and above of the total number of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives cast assenting votes, the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall inform the President to re-delineate the territorial boundary as necessary. (e) The President shall take necessary measures for re-delineation of the territorial boundary of the Union, as necessary, after obtaining the opinion of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 53. (a) If there arises a cause to re-delineate the territorial boundary of a Region or a State, the prior consent of the electorate residing within the township concerned shall be obtained. (b) In obtaining consent, re-delineation of the territorial boundary shall not be executed at all in the absence of assenting votes of more than half of the total number of the electorate residing within the township concerned. (c) If more than half of the total number of eligible voters residing within the township concerned cast assenting vote for re-delineation of the territorial boundary, the consent of the Hluttaw representatives of the Region or State involved in the territorial boundary concerned shall be obtained. (d) The President shall re-delineate the territorial boundary of the Region or State concerned with the consent of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, after obtaining the assenting votes of three-fourths and above of the total number of representatives from the Region or the State concerned. (e) The resolution of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be obtained if a Region Hluttaw or a State Hluttaw concerned decided against re-delineation of the territorial boundary. (f) The President shall, as necessary, re-delineate the territorial boundary of a Region or a State if three-fourths and above of the total number of representatives in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw assent to the re-delineation of the territorial boundary. 54. Where there arises a situation to alter or form the territorial boundary or change the name of a village, village-tract, ward, town, township or district of a Region, State, Self-Administered Division or Self-Administered Zone concerned, the President shall act, as necessary, upon the recommendation of the Chief Minister of the Region or State concerned. 55. If it is desired to change the name of a Self-Administered Division or SelfAdministered Zone, the same procedure shall be applied as in the case of changing the name of a Region or State. 56. The Self-Administered Divisions and Self-Administered Zones are delineated as follows : (a) grouping Leshi, Lahe and Namyun townships in Sagaing Division as Naga Self-Administered Zone; (b) grouping Ywangan and Pindaya townships in Shan State as Danu SelfAdministered Zone; (c) grouping HoPong, HsiHseng and Pinlaung townships in Shan State as Pa-O Self-Administered Zone; (d) grouping Namhsan and Manton townships in Shan State as Pa Laung SelfAdministered Zone; (e) grouping Konkyan and Laukkai townships in Shan State as Kokang SelfAdministered Zone; (f) grouping six townships – Hopang, Mongma, Panwai, Nahpan, Metman and Pangsang (Pankham) townships in Shan State as two districts which are forged into ‘Wa’ Self-Administered Division.


Chapter III - Head of State

57. The President and Vice-Presidents represent the Union. 58. The President of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar takes precedence over all other persons throughout the Republic of the Union of Myanmar. 59. Qualifications of the President and Vice-Presidents are as follows : (a) shall be loyal to the Union and its citizens; (b) shall be a citizen of Myanmar who was born of both parents who were born in the territory under the jurisdiction of the Union and being Myanmar Nationals; (c) shall be an elected person who has attained at least the age of 45; (d) shall be well acquainted with the affairs of the Union such as political, administrative, economic and military; (e) shall be a person who has resided continuously in the Union for at least 20 years up to the time of his election as President; Proviso: An official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of

the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union;

(f) shall he himself, one of the parents, the spouse, one of the legitimate children or their spouses not owe allegiance to a foreign power, not be subject of a foreign power or citizen of a foreign country. They shall not be persons entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or citizen of a foreign country; (g) shall possess prescribed qualifications of the President, in addition to qualifications prescribed to stand for election to the Hluttaw. 60. (a) The President shall be elected by the Presidential Electoral College. (b) The Presidential Electoral College shall be formed with three groups of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives as follows : (i) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw with an equal number of representatives elected from Regions and States; (ii) group formed with elected Hluttaw representatives in the Hluttaw elected on the basis of township and population; (iii) group formed with the Defence Services personnel Hluttaw representatives nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services for the said two Hluttaws. (c) Each group shall elect a Vice-President from among the Hluttaw representatives or from among persons who are not Hluttaw representatives. (d) The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and a Body comprising the Heads and Deputy Heads of the two Hluttaws in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall scrutinize whether or not the Vice-Presidents possess the qualifications prescribed for the President. (e) The Presidential Electoral College comprising all the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives shall elect by vote one of the three Vice-Presidents who are Presidential candidates, as the President. (f) Necessary law shall be enacted for the election of President and VicePresidents. 61. (a) The term of office of the President or the Vice-Presidents is five years. (b) After the expiry of the incumbent term, the President and the Vice-Presidents shall continue their duties until the time the new President is duly elected. (c) The President and the Vice-Presidents shall not serve more than two terms. (d) An interim period to serve as the President or the Vice-President shall not be counted as one term of office. (e) If a vacancy is filled for the President or the Vice-President for any reason, the term of office of the new President or the new Vice-President shall be up to the expiry of the original term of office. 62. The President or the Vice-Presidents shall not be representative of any Hluttaw. 63. If the President or the Vice-Presidents are Hluttaw representatives, they shall be deemed to have resigned from their seats in that Hluttaw, and if the President or the Vice Presidents are the Civil Services personnel, they shall be deemed to have resigned or retired from their offices from the day of their election. 64. If the President or the Vice-Presidents are members of a political party, they shall not take part in its party activities during their term of office from the day of their election. 65. The President and the Vice-Presidents shall make an affirmation as follows: “I ........... do solemnly and sincerely promise and declare that I will be loyal to the Republic of the Union of Myanmar and the citizens and hold always in esteem non-disintegration of the Union, non-disintegration of national solidarity and perpetuation of sovereignty. I will uphold and abide by the Constitution and its Laws. I will carry out the responsibilities uprightly to the best of my ability and strive for further flourishing the eternal principles of justice, liberty and equality. I will dedicate myself to the service of the Republic of the Union of Myanmar.” 66. The President or the Vice-Presidents shall exercise duties and powers vested by this Constitution and other laws. 67. The President and the Vice-Presidents shall not hold any other office or position of emolument. 68. The President and the Vice-Presidents shall furnish a list of family assets under his direction, namely land, houses, buildings, businesses, savings and other valuables together with their values to the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 69. The President and the Vice-Presidents shall receive the emoluments, allowances and insignia of office as prescribed by law. Each shall also be provided with an appropriate official residence. 70. Except in the case of removal from office following impeachment, the President and the Vice-Presidents shall enjoy pension and suitable allowances on retirement in accord with the law after the expiry of the term of office. 71. (a) The President or any Vice-President may be impeached for one of the following reasons : (i) high treason; (ii) breach of the provisions of this Constitution; (iii) misconduct; (iv) being disqualified for the President or Vice-President under provisions as prescribed in this Constitution; (v) inefficient discharge of duties assigned by law. (b) If it be required to impeach the President or any Vice-President, a charge signed by not less than one-fourth of the total number of representatives of either Hluttaw included in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be submitted to the Head of the Hluttaw concerned. (c) Action shall proceed only when this charge is supported by not less than two-thirds of the total number of representatives of the Hluttaw concerned. (d) If one Hluttaw supports the taking of action, the other Hluttaw shall form a Body to investigate this charge. (e) The President or the Vice-President shall have the right to refuse the charge himself in person or through a representative when it is investigated. (f) If, after the investigation, not less than two-thirds of the total number of representatives of the Hluttaw which investigated the charge or caused the investigation to be initiated passed the resolution that the charge has been substantiated and renders the President or the Vice-President unfit to continue in office, the Hluttaw concerned shall submit to the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw such resolution to remove the impeached President or the impeached Vice-President from office. (g) The Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall declare the removal of the President or the Vice-President immediately after the receipt of the submission. 72. The President or any of the Vice-Presidents shall be allowed to resign from office of his own volition before the expiry of the term of office. 73. (a) One of the two Vice-Presidents who has won the second highest votes in the Presidential election shall serve as Acting President if the office of the President falls vacant due to his resignation, death, permanent disability or any other cause. (b) If the office of the President becomes vacant when the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is in session, the Acting President shall promptly intimate the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw to fill the vacancy within seven days. (c) On receipt of the intimation from the Acting President, the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall proceed to elect a Vice-President by the group of Hluttaw representatives concerned that initially elected the Vice-President who subsequently got elected President, the office now being vacant. (d) After the group of Hluttaw representatives concerned has elected a VicePresident, the Electoral College comprising all the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representatives shall elect the President from among the three VicePresidents. (e) If the office of the President becomes vacant when the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is not in session, the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall summon the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw within 21 days from the day of receipt of the intimation from the Acting President and proceed to hold election to fill the vacant office of the President in accord with the above procedure. (f) If the office of a Vice-President becomes vacant before the expiry of the term by reason of his resignation, death, permanent disability or any other cause when the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is in session, the President shall promptly intimate the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw to elect a Vice-President within seven days by the group of Hluttaw representatives concerned that elected the said Vice-President. (g) When the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is not in session, the Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall summon the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw within 21 days from the day of receipt of the intimation from the President and proceed with the election of a Vice-President by the group of Hluttaw representatives concerned in accord with the prescribed procedure.

Chapter IV - Legislature

Formation of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw

74. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw comprises of the following two Hluttaws : (a) in accord with the provisions of Section 109, the Pyithu Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected on the basis of township as well as population and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services; (b) in accord with the provisions of Section 141, the Amyotha Hluttaw formed with Hluttaw representatives elected in equal numbers from Regions and States and Hluttaw representatives being the Defence Services Personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services.

The Head and the Deputy Heads of the respective Hluttaws

75. On the day of commencement of the first Hluttaw session for each term of the Hluttaw concerned, the person who is to conduct and supervise the Hluttaw session held for the taking of affirmation of office by Hluttaw representatives and for electing the Hluttaw Speaker and Deputy Speaker shall be called the Chairperson, the Head and the Deputy Head of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be called the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker, the Head and the Deputy Head of the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall be called the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker.

Performance of duties by the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw

76. (a) The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall also serve as the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw from the day of term of the Pyithu Hluttaw commences up to the end of 30 months and the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall also serve as the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyidaungsu

Hluttaw for the remaining term.

(b) When the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is unable to perform the duties of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker shall temporarily perform the duties of the Speaker. Functions of the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw 77. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall : (a) supervise the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw sessions; (b) invite the President, if he is intimated of the President’s desire to address the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw; (c) have the right to invite organizations or persons representing any of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution to attend the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session and give clarifications on matters relating to ongoing discussions, if necessary; (d) perform other duties and powers prescribed by the Constitution or any law.

Convening the Sessions of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw

78. The first regular session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be held within 15 days from the first day of the commencement of the first session of the Pyithu Hluttaw. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall convene the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 79. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall convene the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw regular session at least once a year. The maximum interval between the two regular sessions shall not exceed twelve months. 80. The following functions shall be carried out at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session : (a) recording the address delivered by the President; (b) reading and recording the message sent by the President and other messages permitted by the Speaker; (c) submitting, discussing and resolving on a Bill; (d) discussing and resolving on the remarks of the President concerning a Bill approved by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw; (e) discussing and resolving on matters to be undertaken by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw in accord with the provisions of the Constitution; (f) discussing, resolving and recording the reports submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw; (g) submitting proposals, discussing and resolving; (h) raising questions and replying; (i) undertaking matters approved by the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 81. Matters that require resolutions, consents and approvals of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be implemented as follows : (a) if the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is in session, the matter shall be discussed and resolved at that session; (b) if the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is not in session, the matter shall be discussed and resolved at the nearest Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session; (c) a special session or an emergency session shall be convened to discuss and resolve matters which need urgent action in the interest of the public. 82. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw may convene a special session or an emergency session, if necessary. 83. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall convene a special session or an emergency session as soon as possible when the President informs him to do so. 84. The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall convene a special session as soon as possible, if at least one-fourth of the total number of the representatives so require. 85. (a) The first day session of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be valid if more than half of the total number, who have the right to attend the session, are present. The session, if invalid, shall be adjourned. (b) The sessions that are adjourned due to invalidity in accord with the SubSection (a) as well as the valid sessions that are extented shall be valid if at least one-third of the Hluttaw representatives are present. 86. (a) A matter that shall be resolved in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, save as otherwise provided by the Constitution, shall be determined by a majority of votes of the representatives of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw who are present and voting. (b) The Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw or the Deputy Speaker acting as such shall not vote in the first instance, but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the case of an equality of votes. 87. If a representative of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is, without permission of the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, absent from sessions of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw for a period of at least 15 consecutive days, the Speaker shall inform the Hluttaw concerned to take action against the representative according to the prescribed procedures. In computing the said period of 15 days, no account shall be taken of any period during which the session is adjourned. 88. Although there are vacant seats, the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall have the right to carry out its functions. Moreover, the resolutions and proceedings of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall not be annulled, notwithstanding the acts of some person who was not entitled to do so sat or voted or took part in the proceedings are later discovered. 89. The proceedings and the records of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall be published. However, the proceedings and the records prohibited by any law or the resolution of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall not be published. 90. Members of the organizations representing any of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution while attending the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw with the permission of the Speaker have the right to explain, converse and discuss the Bills and other matters in connection with the respective organization. 91. The Union level organizations formed under the Constitution may submit the general situation in connection with the respective organization, which should be submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw with the permission of the Speaker. 92. (a) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the provisions of the law relating to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the representatives of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall have freedom of speech and voting at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw Joint Committee. Concerning the submitting, discussing and performing at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and the Joint Committee, no action shall be taken against, a representative of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, except under its law. (b) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the provisions of the law relating to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, members of the organizations or persons representing any of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution who are invited to attend the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session have the freedom of speech. No action shall be taken against such members or persons for their submission and speeches in Pyidaungsu Hluttaw by other law except under its law. (c) If the persons mentioned in Sub-Sections (a) and (b) committed assault in exercising the said privileges, they shall be liable to punishment under the regulations, by-laws, procedures of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw or the existing law. 93. If there is a need to arrest a Pyidaungsu Hluttaw representative attending the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session or a person attending the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session with the permission or invitation of the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, credible evidence shall be submitted to the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. He shall not be arrested without the prior permission of the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 94. No action shall be instituted relating to the reports, documents, and Hluttaw records published by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw or under its authority. Legislation 95. (a) If a Bill initiated in the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Amyotha Hluttaw is approved by both Hluttaws, it shall be deemed that the Bill is approved by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (b) If there is a disagreement between the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw concerning a Bill, the Bill shall be discussed and resolved in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 96. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall have the right to enact laws for the entire or any part of the Union related to matters prescribed in Schedule One of the Union Legislative List. 97. (a) When the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw enacts a law, it may : (i) authorize to issue rules, regulations and by-laws concerning that law to any Union level organization formed under the Constitution; (ii) authorize to issue notifications, orders, directives and procedures to the respective organization or authority (b) The rules, regulations, notifications, orders, directives, and procedures issued under the power conferred by any law shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Constitution and the relevant law. (c) If both the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw resolve to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law, it shall be deemed that the rule, regulation, or by-law is annulled or amended by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (d) If there is a disagreement to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law between the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw, it shall be discussed and resolved at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (e) If a resolution is passed to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law under Sub-Section (c) or (d), the resolution shall be without prejudice to the validity of any action previously taken under the relevant rule, regulation or by-law. Legislation relating to Other Matters 98. The legislative power is vested in the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw relating to other matters not enumerated in the legislative list of the Union, Region or State and Self-Administered Division Leading Body or Self-Administered Zone Leading Body. Legislation relating to Union Territories 99. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall enact the required laws if the need arises to do so for the Union territories relating to matters for which legislative powers are vested to the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw, or Self-Administered Division Leading Body or Self-Administered Zone Leading Body.

Submission of Bill

100. (a) The Union level organizations formed under the Constitution shall have the right to submit the Bills relating to matters they administered among the matters included in the Union Legislative List to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. (b) Bills relating to national plans, annual budgets and taxation, which are to be submitted exclusively by the Union Government shall be discussed and resolved at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 101. The Bills submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw by the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution, except the Bills that are prescribed in the Constitution to be discussed and resolved exclusively at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, are entitled to initiate and discuss at either the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Amyotha Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 102. The Bills, which are to be discussed and resolved exclusively at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw need to be vetted before being discussed at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, those Bills shall be vetted jointly by the Pyithu Hluttaw Bill Committee and the Amyotha Hluttaw Bill Committee, and the findings and remarks of the Joint Committee together with the Bill may be submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session in accord with the prescribed procedures.

Submission of the Union Budget Bill

103. (a) The President or the person assigned by him, on behalf of the Union Government, shall submit the Union Budget Bill to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (b) The following matters included in the Union Budget Bill shall be discussed at the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw but not refused or curtailed : (i) salary and allowance of Heads and Members of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution and expenditures of those organizations; (ii) debts for which the Union is liable and expenses relating to the debts, and other expenses relating to the loans taken out by the Union; (iii) expenditures required to satisfy judgment, order, decree of any Court or Tribunal; (iv) other expenditures which are to be charged by any existing law or any international treaty. (c) Approval, refusal and curtailing of other expenditures except the expenditures specified in Sub-Section (b) shall be passed by the majority consent of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (d) The Union Government shall perform as necessary in accord with the Union Budget Law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (e) If in respect of the relevant financial year a need has arisen to authorize the estimated receipts and authorized expenditures in the Union Budget Law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw and in addition to estimate receipts and to authorize expenditures, the Supplementary Appropriation law shall be enacted in the above manner. (f) The Union Government shall perform as necessary in accord with the Supplementary Appropriation Law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw.

Ordinance

104. When the President after promulgating an Ordinance submits it to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw for approval, the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall : (a) resolve to approve the Ordinance or not; (b) if it is approved determine the period, the Ordinance shall continue to be in operation; (c) if it is disapproved, cease to operate from the day of its disapproval.

Promulgation as Law

105. (a) The President shall sign the Bills approved or the Bills deemed to be approved by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, within 14 days after the day of receipt, and shall promulgate it as Law. (b) The President, within the prescribed period, may send the Bill back to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw together with his comments. (c) If the President does not send the Bill back to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw together with his signature and comments within the prescribed period, or if the President does not sign to promulgate, on the day after the completion of that period, the Bill shall become a law as if he had signed it. 106. (a) If the President sends the Bill back to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw together with his comments within the prescribed period, the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, after discussion of the President’s comments, may accept his comment and resolve to amend the Bill or may resolve to approve the Bill as it is without accepting the President’s comment. (b) When the Bill which is amended in accord with the President’s comment or the Bill which is approved as it is without accepting the President’s comment is sent back to him by the resolution of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the President shall sign the Bill and promulgate it as law within seven days after receiving the Bill back. (c) If the Bill sent back by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw is not signed by the President within the prescribed period, it shall become law as if he had signed it on the last day of the prescribed period. 107. The laws signed by the President or the laws deemed to have been signed by him shall be promulgated by publication in the official gazette. The Law shall come into operation on the day of such promulgation unless the contrary intention is expressed. 108. The Pyidaungsu Hluttaw : (a) shall give the resolution on matters relating to ratifying, annulling and revoking from international, regional or bilateral treaties, agreements submitted by the President; (b) may confer the authority on the President to conclude, annul and revoke any kind of international, regional or bilateral treaties or agreements without the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw.

Pyithu Hluttaw

Formation of the Pyithu Hluttaw

109. The Pyithu Hluttaw shall be formed with a maximum of 440 Hluttaw representatives as follows : (a) not more than 330 Pyithu Hluttaw representatives elected prescribing electorate in accord with law on the basis of township as well as population or combining with an appropriate township which is contagious to the newly-formed township if it is more than 330 townships; (b) not more than 110 Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services in accord with the law.

Election of the Pyithu Hluttaw Chairperson

110. (a) A Pyithu Hluttaw representative shall be elected as the Chairperson at the commencement of the first session of the Pyithu Hluttaw for its term. (b) The Chairperson shall take an affirmation of office before the Pyithu Hluttaw; (c) The Chairperson shall supervise the Pyithu Hluttaw session up to the completion of the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw.

Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw

111. (a) (i) The Pyithu Hluttaw representatives shall elect a Speaker and a Deputy Speaker from among the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives. (ii) When the seat of the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker becomes vacant, the substitution shall be made at the nearest session of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (iii) When the Speaker is unable to perform the duties of the Speaker, the Deputy Speaker shall temporarily perform the duties of the Speaker. (b) The law relating to procedures to elect the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be enacted.

Functions of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw

112. The Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall : (a) supervise the Pyithu Hluttaw sessions; (b) invite the President, if he is intimated of the President’s desire to address the Pyithu Hluttaw; (c) have the right to invite members of the organization or persons representing any of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution to attend the Pyithu Hluttaw and give clarifications on matters relating to ongoing discussions of the Pyithu Hluttaw session, if necessary; (d) perform other duties and exercise powers prescribed by the Constitution or any law.

Performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw

113. (a) The Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall perform their duties until the first session of the next term of the Pyithu Hluttaw is held. (b) If the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker resigns or has ceased to be a Pyithu Hluttaw representative, or has no right to continue to stand as a Pyithu Hluttaw representative, or is suspended from his position as the Speaker or the Deputy Speaker by the Pyithu Hluttaw, or has passed away, he shall have ceased from his position. 114. Duties, powers and rights of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be prescribed by law.

Formation of the Pyithu Hluttaw Committee, Commission and Bodies

115. (a) The Pyithu Hluttaw shall form Bill Committee, Public Accounts Committee, Hluttaw Rights Committee, and Government’s Guarantees, Pledges and Undertakings Vetting Committee with the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives. (b) When the occasion arises to have studies made and submitted on defence and security matters or Military affairs, the Pyithu Hluttaw shall form the Defence and Security Committee with the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services Personnel, for a limited time. The Defence and Security Committee so formed may, if necessary, be included suitable Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are not the Defence Services Personnel in accord with the volume of work. (c) If there arises a need to study and submit other affairs, in addition to legislature, executive, national races affairs, economics, finance, social and foreign affairs, Hluttaw Committees may be formed with the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives for a limited time. (d) The Pyithu Hluttaw shall determine the number of members, duties, powers, rights, and terms of Pyithu Hluttaw Committees. 116. If there arises a certain matter to co-ordinate with the Amyotha Hluttaw, the Pyithu Hluttaw may elect and assign its representatives who will serve with the Joint Committee comprising an equal number of representatives from the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw to form that Committee. The term of the Joint Committee shall be until the time they have submitted the report to the Hluttaw concerned. 117. When both the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw have certain matters to study, apart from matters to be performed by the Committees as prescribed in SubSections (a) and (b) of Section 115, the Speakers of these Hluttaws may co-ordinate among themselves and form a Joint Committee comprising an equal number of representatives from the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw. The Pyithu Hluttaw may elect and assign the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives included in that Committee. The term of the Joint Committee shall be until the time they have submitted the report to the Hluttaw concerned. 118. (a) If there arises a need to study the remaining matters other than those studied by the Pyithu Hluttaw Committees, the Pyithu Hluttaw may form Commissions and Bodies with the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives or including suitable citizens. (b) In forming the above Commissions and Bodies, the Pyithu Hluttaw shall determine the number of members, duties, powers, rights, and the terms of the said Commissions and Bodies.

Term of the Pyithu Hluttaw

119. The term of the Pyithu Hluttaw is five years from the day of its first session.

Qualification of the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives

120. Persons who possess the following qualifications shall be entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives : (a) person who has attained the age of 25 years; (b) citizen who was born of both parents who are citizens; (c) person who has resided in the Union of Myanmar for at least ten consecutive years up to the time of his election as Pyithu Hluttaw representative; Proviso: The official period of stay in a foreign country with the permission of the Union shall be counted as a residing period in the Union, (d) person who possesses qualifications prescribed by the Election Law.

Disqualification for the Pyithu Hluttaw Representatives

121. The following persons shall not be entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives : (a) a person serving prison term, having been convicted by the Court concerned for having committed an offence; (b) a person who has no right to be elected a Pyithu Hluttaw representative due to having committed an offence relating to disqualification for the Pyithu Hluttaw representative and being convicted for such offence, unless the period specified by the authority for him has not expired, before or after the Constitution comes into operation; (c) person who is of unsound mind as adjudged by the relevant law; (d) person who is an undischarged insolvent as being declared by the relevant court; (e) person who owes allegiance to a foreign government, or subject to a foreign government or a citizen of a foreign country; (f) person who is entitled to enjoy the rights and privileges of a subject of a foreign government or a citizen of a foreign country; (g) person himself or is of a member of an organization who obtains and utilizes directly or indirectly the support of money, land, housing, building, vehicle, property, so forth, from government or religious organization or other organizations of a foreign country; (h) person himself or is of a member of an organization who abets the act of inciting, giving speech, conversing or issuing declaration to vote or not to vote based on religion for political purpose; (i) member of a religious order; (j) Civil Services personnel; Proviso: The expression shall not be applied to Civil Services personnel including the Defence Services personnel selected and appointed in the Hluttaws and organizations formed under the Constitution. (k) person himself or is of a member of an organization who obtains and utilizes directly or indirectly the State-owned money, land, housing, building, vehicle, property, so forth; Proviso: (i) The expression ‘State-owned money’ does not include pension, allowance, money or salary, allowances, money officially granted by the Union for services rendered for the benefit of the Union; (ii) The expression ‘State-owned land, housing, building, vehicles and property’ does not include State-owned land, housing, building and apartments, other building and apartments, State-owned aircraft, trains, vessels and motor vehicles and property, so forth, which have been permitted by the Union to be used under an existing law or as required by duty, or leased from the Union on payment. (l) a person who has no right to be elected a Pyithu Hluttaw representative due to having committed a malpractice under relating to the Election Law or acting an omission relating to disqualification for a Pyithu Hluttaw representative being convicted under the Election Law, the period specified by the authority for him has not expired, before or after the Constitution comes into operation.

Qualifications of the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel

122. The Defence Services personnel, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel in accord with the law, shall possess the prescribed qualifications for the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives.

Convening the Pyithu Hluttaw Session

123. The first regular session of a term of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be held within 90 days after the commencement of the general election. 124. (a) The first regular session of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be held by the State Peace and Development Council after the Constitution comes into operation. (b) The first regular sessions for the forthcoming terms of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be held by the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw who continues to perform his duties in accord with the provisions of the Constitution. 125. (a) The representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall take an affirmation of office as mentioned in Schedule Four before the Chairperson of the Pyithu Hluttaw at the first regular session of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) The representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw who have not taken an affirmation of office shall do so before the Speaker of the Hluttaw at the session of the Pyithu Hluttaw at which they first attend. 126. The Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall convene the regular session at least once a year. The maximum interval between regular sessions shall not exceed 12 months. 127. The following functions shall be carried out at the Pyithu Hluttaw session : (a) recording the address delivered by the President; (b) reading and recording the message sent by the President and other messages permitted by the Speaker; (c) submitting, discussing and resolving on a Bill; (d) discussing and resolving on the matters to be undertaken by the Pyithu Hluttaw in accord with the provisions of the Constitution; (e) discussing, resolving and recording the reports submitted to the Pyithu Hluttaw; (f) submitting proposals, discussing and resolving; (g) raising questions and replying; (h) performing matters approved by the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw. 128. (a) The first day session of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be valid if more than half of the total number of the Hluttaw representatives, who have the right to attend the session, are present. The session, if invalid, shall be adjourned. (b) The sessions that are adjourned due to invalidity in accord with the Sub-Section (a) as well as the valid sessions that are extended will be valid if at least one-third of the Hluttaw representatives are present. 129. (a) A matter that shall be resolved in the Pyithu Hluttaw, save as otherwise provided by the Constitution, shall be determined by a majority of votes of the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives who are present and voting. (b) The Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Deputy Speaker discharging duties as the Speaker at the Pyithu Hluttaw shall not vote in the first instance in the sessions of the Pyithu Hluttaw, but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the matter of an equality of votes. 130. (a) If a Pyithu Hluttaw representative is, without permission of the Pyithu Hluttaw, absent from a Pyithu Hluttaw session for a period of at least 15 consecutive days, the Pyithu Hluttaw may declare his seat vacant. In computing the said period of 15 days, no account shall be taken of any period during which the session is adjourned. (b) If the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw informed the Pyithu Hluttaw that a Pyithu Hluttaw representative is absent from a Pyidaungsu Hluttaw session for a period of 15 consecutive days without permission, the Pyithu Hluttaw shall take action against the said representative in accord with the prescribed procedures. 131. Although there are vacant seats, the Pyithu Hluttaw shall have the right to carry out its functions. Moreover, the resolutions and proceedings of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall not be annulled, notwithstanding the acts of some person who was not entitled to do so sat or voted or took part in the proceedings are later discovered. 132. The proceedings and the records of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be published. However, the proceedings and the records prohibited by any law or the resolution of the Pyithu Hluttaw shall not be published. 133. (a) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the law relating to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives shall have freedom of speech and voting at the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw Committee. Concerning the discussing, submitting and performing at the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw Committees, no action shall be taken against a Pyithu Hluttaw representative except under its law. (b) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the provisions of the law relating to the Pyithu Hluttaw, members of the organizations or persons representing any of the Union level organizations formed under the Constitution who are permitted or invited to attend the session of the Pyithu Hluttaw or any committee of the Pyithu Hluttaw have the freedom of speech at the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw Committees. No action shall be taken against such members or persons for their submissions and speeches in the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw Committees by other law except under its law. (c) If the persons mentioned in Sub-Sections (a) and (b) committed assault in exercising the said privileges, they shall be liable to punishment under the regulations, by-laws, procedures of the Pyithu Hluttaw or the existing laws. 134. (a) If there is a need to arrest a Pyithu Hluttaw representative attending the session or a person attending the Pyithu Hluttaw session with the permission or invitation of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw, the credible evidence shall be submitted to the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw. He shall not be arrested without the prior permission of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) If there is a need to arrest a member of a Committee or Commission or the Body of the Pyithu Hluttaw attending session of any Committee or session of Commission or the Body formed by the Pyithu Hluttaw, the credible evidence shall be submitted to the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw through the Head of the Committee or Commission or Body concerned. He shall not be arrested without the prior permission of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (c) If a Pyithu Hluttaw representative is arrested, the Pyithu Hluttaw or the Pyithu Hluttaw Committee or the Commission or the Body formed by the Pyithu Hluttaw is not in session, the credible evidence in support of such arrest shall as soon as possible be submitted to the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw. 135. No action shall be instituted relating to the reports, documents, and Hluttaw records published by the Pyithu Hluttaw or under its authority.

Submission of Bill

136. Bills relating to other matters , except the matters prescribed in the Constitution that the Bill shall be submitted and passed exclusively by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw stated in the Schedule One of Union Legislative List, shall be initiated in the Pyithu Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 137. (a) After issuing any rule, regulation or by-law in accord with the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Body concerned shall distribute and submit the said rule, regulation or by-law to its representatives at the nearest regular session of the Pyithu Hluttaw with the permitted arrangement of the Speaker of the Hluttaw. (b) If it is found that a rule, regulation or by-law is in conformity with the provisions of relevant law, Hluttaw representatives may move to annul or amend the rule, regulation or by-law to the Pyithu Hluttaw within 90 days from the day that rule, regulation or by-law is submitted and distributed. (c) If there is a disagreement between the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law, it shall be submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 138. (a) If Bills submitted by any Union level organization formed under the Constitution are sent in accord with the prescribed procedures of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, it shall be deemed that such Bills are initiated in the Pyithu Hluttaw, and shall be discussed and resolved in the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) Bills relating to other matters , except the matters prescribed in the Constitution that the Bill shall be submitted and passed exclusively by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw stated in the Union Legislative List, shall be initiated in the Pyithu Hluttaw in accord with the law. Such Bills shall be discussed and resolved by the Pyithu Hluttaw under the prescribed procedures. (c) The Bills passed by the Pyithu Hluttaw shall be sent to the Amyotha Hluttaw to continue to discuss and resolve. 139. (a) After receiving a Bill sent by the Amyotha Hluttaw, the Pyithu Hluttaw may resolve to agree or disagree, or agree with amendments in accord with the resolution of the Amyotha Hluttaw. The Bill shall be sent back to the Amyotha Hluttaw together with the resolution of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) When the Pyithu Hluttaw recieves the Bill with amendments from the Amyotha Hluttaw it shall, if it accepts the Bill with amendments of the Amyotha Hluttaw, send to the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (c) If there is a disagreement between the Pyithu Hluttaw and the Amyotha Hluttaw relating to the Bill sent to the Amyotha Hluttaw, the Pyithu Hluttaw shall take the resolution of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 140. Members of the organization representing any Union level Body formed under the Constitution are entitled : (a) to explain, converse and discuss Bills or matters relating to their Bodies when they are attending the Pyithu Hluttaw session with the permission of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw; (b) to explain, converse and discuss Bills or matters relating to their Bodies when they are attending sessions of the Committees, Commissions and Bodies of the Pyithu Hluttaw with the permission of the Head of the Committee, Commission or Body concerned.

Amyotha Hluttaw

Formation of the Amyotha Hluttaw

141. The Amyotha Hluttaw shall be formed with a maximum of 224 Hluttaw representatives as follows : (a) 168 Amyotha Hluttaw representatives elected in an equal number of 12 representatives from each Region or State inclusive of relevant Union territories and including one representative from each Self-Administered Division or Self-Administered Zone; (b) 56 Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services in accord with the law, four representatives from each Region or State inclusive of relevant Union territories; (c) in forming the Amyotha Hluttaw as mentioned in Sub-Sections (a) and (b), the relevant Union Territory means the Union Territories, prescribed under the Constitution, or prescribed by law of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, which are inclusive in State or Division, Region or State for the purpose of electing the Amyotha Hluttaw representative.

Election of Chairperson of the Amyotha Hluttaw

142. Election of Chairperson of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to the election of Chairperson of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 110.

Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw

143. Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 111. Duties of the Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw 144. The duties of the Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be subject to the provisions relating to the duties of the Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 112. Performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw 145. Performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be subject to the provisions relating to the performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 113. 146. Duties, powers and rights of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be prescribed by law.

Formation of the Amyotha Hluttaw Committees, Commissions and Bodies

147. (a) The Amyotha Hluttaw shall form Bill Committee, Public Accounts Committee, Hluttaw Rights Committee, and Government’s Guarantees, Pledges and Undertakings Vetting Committee with the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives. (b) When the occasion arises to have studies made and submitted on defence and security matters or Military affairs, the Amyotha Hluttaw shall form the Defence and Security Committee with the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel, for a limited time. The Defence and Security Committee so formed may, if necessary, be included suitable Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are not the Defence Services personnel in accord with the volume of work. (c) If there arises a need to study and submit on other affairs, in addition to legislature, executive, national races affairs, economics, finance, social and foreign affairs, the Hluttaw Committees may be formed with the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives for a limited time. (d) The Amyotha Hluttaw shall determine the number of members, duties, powers, rights, and term of the Amyotha Hluttaw Committees. 148. If there arises a certain matter to co-ordinate with the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw may elect and assign its representatives who will serve with the Joint Committee comprising an equal number of representatives from the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw to form that Committee. The term of the Joint Committee shall be until the time they have submitted the report to the Hluttaw concerned. 149. When both the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw have certain matters to study, apart from matters to be performed by the Committees as prescribed in SubSections (a) and (b) of Section 147, the Speakers of these Hluttaws may co-ordinate among themselves and form a Joint Committee comprising an equal number of representatives from the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw. The Amyotha Hluttaw may elect and assign the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives included in that Committee. The term of the Joint Committee shall be until the time they have submitted the report to the Hluttaw concerned. 150. Formation of the Amyotha Hluttaw Commissions and Bodies of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to the formation of Commission and Bodies of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 118.

Term of the Amyotha Hluttaw

151. The term of the Amyotha Hluttaw is the same as the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw. The term of the Amyotha Hluttaw expires on the day of the expiry of the Pyithu Hluttaw. Qualifications of the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives 152. The Amyotha Hluttaw representatives shall be : (a) persons who have attained the age of 30 years; (b) persons who have qualifications, with the exception of the age limit, entitled to be elected as Pyithu Hluttaw representatives prescribed under Section 120; (c) persons whose qualifications does not breach the provisions under Section 121 which disqualified a person from standing for election as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives.

Qualifications of the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel

153. The Defence Services personnel, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services as the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel in accord with the law, shall possess the prescribed qualifications for the Amyotha Hluttaw representatives.

Convening of the Amyotha Hluttaw Session

154. (a) The commencement of the term of the Amyotha Hluttaw is the day of the commencement of the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) The first regular session of the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be held within seven days after the commencement of the term of that Hluttaw. 155. Convening the Amyotha Hluttaw session shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to convening of the Pyithu Hluttaw sessions under Sections 124 to 135.

Submission of Bill

156. Bills relating to other matters, except the matters prescribed in the Constitution that the Bill was submitted and passed exclusively by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw stated in Union Legislative List, shall be initiated in the Amyotha Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 157. (a) After issuing a rule, regulation or by-law in accord with the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Body concerned shall distribute and submit the said rule, regulation or by-law to its representatives at the nearest regular session of the Amyotha Hluttaw with the permitted arrangement of the Speaker of the Hluttaw. (b) If it is found that a rule, regulation or by-law is in conformity with the provisions of relevant law, Hluttaw representatives may move to annul or amend the rule, regulation or by-law to the Amyotha Hluttaw within 90 days from the day that rule, regulation or by-law is submitted and distributed. (c) If there is a disagreement between the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law, it shall be submitted to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 158. (a) If Bills submitted by any Union level organization formed under the Constitution are sent in accord with prescribed procedures of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, it shall be deemed that such Bills are initiated in the Amyotha Hluttaw, and shall be discussed and resolved in the Amyotha Hluttaw. (b) Bills relating to other matters, except the matters prescribed in the Constitution that the Bill was submitted and passed exclusively by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw stated in the Union Legislative List shall be initiated in the Amyotha Hluttaw in accord with the law. Such Bills shall be discussed and resolved by the Amyotha Hluttaw under the prescribed procedures. (c) The Bills passed by the Amyotha Hluttaw shall be sent to the Pyithu Hluttaw to continue to discuss and to resolve. 159. (a) After receiving a Bill sent by the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw may resolve to agree or disagree, or agree with amendments in accord with the resolution of the Pyithu Hluttaw. The Bill shall be sent back to the Pyithu Hluttaw together with the resolution of the Amyotha Hluttaw. (b) When the Amyotha Hluttaw recieves the Bill with amendments from the Pyithu Hluttaw it shall, if it accepts the Bill with amendments of the Pyithu Hluttaw, send to the Speaker of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. (c) If there is a disagreement between the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Pyithu Hluttaw relating to the Bill sent to the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw shall obtain the resolution of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. 160. Members representing any Union level Body formed under the Constitution are entitled : (a) to explain, converse and discuss Bills or matters relating to their Bodies when they are attending the Amyotha Hluttaw session with the permission of the Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw; (b) to explain, converse and discuss Bills or matters relating to their Bodies when they are attending sessions of the Committees, Commissions and Bodies of the Amyotha Hluttaw with the permission of the Head of the Committee, Commission or Body concerned.

Region Hluttaw or State Hluttaw

Formation of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw

161. The Region or State Hluttaw shall be formed with the following persons : (a) representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw, two of each are elected from each township in the Regions or the States; (b) representatives of the Region Hluttaw, each is elected from each national race determined by the authorities concerned as having a population which constitutes 0.1 percent and above of the population of the Union, of the remaining national races other than those who have already obtained the respective Region or a Self-Administered Area in that Region; (c) representatives of the State Hluttaw, each is elected from each national race determined by the authorities concerned as having a population which constitutes 0.1 percent and above of the population of the Union, of the remaining national races other than those who have already obtained respective State or a Self-Administered Area in that State; (d) representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw who are the Defence Services personnel nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services in accord with the law for an equal number of one-third of the total number of Hluttaw representatives elected under Sub-Sections (a) and (b) or (a) and (c).

Election of the Chairperson of the Region or State Hluttaw

162. Election of Chairperson of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to the election of Chairperson of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 110.

Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw

163. Election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall be carried out subject to the provisions relating to the election of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw under Section 111. Duties of the Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw 164. The Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall : (a) supervise the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw sessions; (b) invite the President, if he is informed of the President’s desire to address the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw; (c) make necessary arrangement if the Chief Minister of the Region or State informs his desire to address; (d) have the right to invite members of the organization or persons representing any Region or State level organization formed under the Constitution to attend the session of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw and give clarifications on matters relating to ongoing discussions, if necessary; (e) perform other duties and powers prescribed by the Constitution or any law.

Performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw

165. Performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall be subject to the provisions relating to the performance and termination of duties of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw in Section 113. 166. Duties, powers and rights of the Speaker and the Deputy Speaker of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall be prescribed by law.

Formation of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw Committee and Bodies

167. (a) The Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw may, if necessary, form Committee and Bodies with the Region or State Hluttaw representatives concerned to study and submit legislation, national races affairs vested by the Constitution. (b) The Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw may form above Committees and Bodies including suitable citizens. (c) The Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw shall prescribe the number of members, duties, powers, rights and terms of the Committees or Bodies in forming those Committees and Bodies.

Term of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw

168. The term of the Region or State Hluttaw is the same as the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw. The term of the Region or State Hluttaw expires on the day of the expiry of the Pyithu Hluttaw.

Qualifications of the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw representatives

169. The Region or State Hluttaw representatives shall : (a) have qualifications entitled to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives under Section 120; (b) shall be subject to the provisions of Section 121 which provide the disqualifications to be elected as the Pyithu Hluttaw representatives.

Qualifications of the Region or State Hluttaw representatives who are Defence Services personnel

170. The Defence Services personnel, nominated by the Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services as the Region or State Hluttaw representatives who are the Defence Services personnel in accord with the law, shall possess the prescribed qualifications for the Region or State Hluttaw representatives. Convening the Region or State Hluttaw Sessions 171. (a) The commencement of the term of the Region or State Hluttaw is the day of the commencement of the term of the Pyithu Hluttaw. (b) The first regular session of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be held within 15 days after the commencement of the term of the Hluttaw. 172. (a) The first regular session of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be convened by the State Peace and Development Council after the Constitution comes into operation. (b) The first regular sessions for the forthcoming terms of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be held by the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw who continues to perform his duties in accord with the provisions of the Constitution. 173. (a) The representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw shall take an affirmation of office as mentioned in Schedule Four before the Chairperson of the Region or State Hluttaw at the first regular session of the Region or State Hluttaw. (b) The representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw who have not taken an affirmation of office shall do so before the Speaker of the Hluttaw at the session of the Region or State Hluttaw at which they first attend. 174. The Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw shall convene the regular session at least once a year. The maximum interval between regular sessions shall not exceed 12 months. 175. The following functions shall be carried out at the Region or State Hluttaw session: (a) recording the addresses delivered by the President; (b) reading and recording the message sent by President and other messages permitted by the Speaker; (c) recording the address delivered by the Chief Minister of the Region or the State; (d) submitting, discussing and resolving on a Bill; (e) discussing and resolving on the matters to be undertaken by the Region or State Hluttaw in accord with the provisions of the Constitution; (f) discussing, resolving and recording the reports submitted to the Region or State Hluttaw; (g) submitting proposal, discussing and resolving; (h) raising questions and replying; (i) undertaking matters approved by the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw. 176. Matters that require resolution, agreement and approval of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be implemented as follows : (a) if the Region or State Hluttaw is in session, the matter shall be resolved at that session; (b) if the Region or State Hluttaw is not in session, the matter shall be resolved at the nearest Region or State Hluttaw session; (c) a special session or an emergency session shall be convened to discuss and to resolve matters which need urgent action in the interest of the public. 177. The Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw may convene a special session or an emergency session of the Region or State Hluttaw, if necessary. 178. The Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw shall convene a special or an emergency session of the Region or State Hluttaw as soon as possible when the Chief Minister of the Region or State informs him to do so. 179. The Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw shall convene a special session as soon as possible, if at least one-fourth of the total number of the Region or State Hluttaw representatives so require. 180. (a) The first day session of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be valid if more than half of the total number of Hluttaw representatives, who have the right to attend the Region or State Hluttaw session, are present. The session, if invalid, shall be adjourned. (b) The sessions that are adjourned due to invalidity in accord with the Sub-Section (a) as well as the valid session that are extended will be valid if at least one-third of the Hluttaw representatives are present. 181. (a) A matter that shall be resolved in the Region or State Hluttaw, save as otherwise provided by the Constitution, shall be determined by a majority of votes of the Region or State Hluttaw representatives who are present and voting. (b) The Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw discharging duties as the Speaker at the Region or State Hluttaw shall not voted in the first instance in the sessions of the Region or State Hluttaw, but shall have and exercise a casting vote in the matter of an equality of votes. 182. If the Region or State Hluttaw representative is, without permission of the Region or State Hluttaw, absent from a Region or a State Hluttaw session for a period of at least 15 consecutive days, the Region or State Hluttaw may declare his seat vacant. In computing the said period of 15 days, it shall not be counted of any period during which the session is adjourned. 183. Although there are vacant seats, the Region or State Hluttaw shall have the right to carry out its functions. Moreover, the resolutions and proceedings of the Region or State Hluttaw shall not be annulled, notwithstanding the acts of some person who was not entitled to do so sat or voted or took part in the proceedings are later discovered. 184. The proceedings and the records of the Region or State Hluttaw shall be published. However, the proceedings and the records prohibited by any law or the resolution of the Region or State Hluttaw shall not be published. 185. (a) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the provisions of the law relating to the Region or State Hluttaw, the Region or State Hluttaw representatives shall have freedom of speech and voting at the Region or State Hluttaw and the Committee and Body formed by the Region or State Hluttaw. Concerning the discussing, submitting and performing at the Region or State Hluttaw and the Region or State Hluttaw Committees and Bodies, no action shall be taken against a Region or a State Hluttaw representative except under its laws. (b) Subject to the provisions of the Constitution and the provisions of the law relating to the Region or State Hluttaw, members of the organizations or persons representing any of the Region or State level organizations formed under the Constitution who are permitted or invited to attend the session of the Region or State Hluttaw or any Committee and Body of the Region or State Hluttaw have the freedom of speech at the Region or State Hluttaw or the Region or State Hluttaw Committees and Bodies. No action shall be taken against such members or persons for their submissions and speeches in the Region or State Hluttaw by other law except under its laws. (c) If the persons mentioned in Sub-Sections (a) and (b) committed assault in exercising the said privileges, they shall be liable to punishment under the regulations, by-laws, procedures of the Region or State Hluttaw or the existing laws. 186. (a) If there is a need to arrest a Region or a State Hluttaw representative attending the Region or State Hluttaw session or a person attending the Region or State Hluttaw session with the permission or invitation of the Speaker of the Hluttaw, the credible evidence shall be submitted to the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw. He shall not be arrested without the prior permission of the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw. (b) If there is a need to arrest a member of a Committee or a Body of the Region or State Hluttaw attending session of any Committee or Body formed by the Region or State Hluttaw, the credible evidence shall be submitted to the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw through the Head of the Committee or Body concerned. He shall not be arrested without the prior permission of the Speaker of the Hluttaw. (c) If a representative of the Region or State Hluttaw is arrested, session of the Region or State Hluttaw or session of any Committee or any Body formed by the Hluttaw is not in session, the credible evidence in support of such arrest shall as soon as possible be submitted to the Speaker of the Region or State Hluttaw. 187. No action shall be instituted relating to the reports, documents and Hluttaw records published by the Region or State Hluttaw or under its authority.

Legislation

188. The Region or State Hluttaw shall have the right to enact laws for the entire or any part of the Region or State related to matters prescribed in Schedule Two of the Region or State Hluttaw Legislative List. 189. (a) When the Region or State Hluttaw enacts a law, it may : (i) authorize to issue rules, regulations and by-laws concerning that law to any Region or State level organization formed under the Constitution; (ii) authorize to issue notifications, orders, directives and procedures to the respective organization or authority. (b) The rules, regulations, by-laws, notifications, orders, directives and procedures issued under the power conferred by any law shall be in conformity with the provisions of the Constitution and the relevant law. (c) After issuing any rule, regulation or by-law in accord with the law enacted by the Region or State Hluttaw, the Body concerned shall distribute and submit the said rule, regulation or by-law to its representatives at the nearest regular session of the Region or State Hluttaw under the permitted arrangement of the Speaker of the Hluttaw. (d) If it is found that a rule, regulation or by-law is in conformity with the provisions of relevant law, Hluttaw representatives may move to annul or amend the rule, regulation or by-law to the Region or State Hluttaw within 90 days from the day that rule, regulation or by-law is submitted and distributed. (e) If the Region or State Hluttaw passes a resolution to annul or amend any rule, regulation or by-law, the resolution shall be without prejudice to the validity of any action previously taken under the relevant rules, regulations or by-laws.

Submission of Bill

190. (a) The Region or State level organizations formed under the Constitution shall have the right to submit the Bills relating to matters they administered among the matters included in the Schedule Two of the Region or State Legislative List to the Region or State Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. (b) Bills relating to regional plans, annual budgets and taxation of the Region or State, which are to be submitted exclusively by the Region or State government, shall be submitted to the Region or State Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 191. Representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw shall submit the Bills relating to other matters, except the matters prescribed in the Constitution that the Bill was submitted exclusively by the Region or State Hluttaw stated in the Schedule Two of the Region or State Legislative List, to the Region or State Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. 192. (a) Members, who are representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw among members representing any Region or State level organization formed under the Constitution, are entitled to explain, converse, discuss and vote Bills or matters relating to their organizations at the Hluttaw sessions. (b) Members, who are not representatives of the Region or State Hluttaw among members representing any Region or State level organization formed under the Constitution, when they are attending Hluttaw session with the permission of the Speaker of the Hluttaw, are entitled to explain, converse and discuss Bills or matters relating to their organizations.

Submission of Region and State Budget Bill

193. (a) The Region or State Annual Budget Bill to which only by the Region or State Government has the right to be submitted only to the Region or State Hluttaw in accord with the prescribed procedures. (b) Relating to the Bill in Sub-Section (a), the Region or State Budget including finance received from the Union Fund of the Region or State under the Union Budget Law or the Supplementary Appropriation Law with the recommendation of the Chief Minister concerned shall be discussed, as may be necessary by the Region or State Hluttaw concerned and shall be carried out and approved, refused, curtailed with the majority consent. In doing so, the following matters may be discussed at the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw, but not refused or curtailed : (i) salary and allowance of Heads and members of the Region or State level organizations formed under the Constitution and expenditures of those organizations;

(ii) salary and allowance of Heads and members of Leading Bodies of Self-Administered Area formed under the Constitution and expenditures of those bodies; (iii) debts for which the Region or State is liable and expenses relating to the debts, other expenses relating to the loans taken out by the Region or State; (iv) expenditures required to satisfy judgment, order or decree of any Court or Tribunal; (v) other expenditures which are to be charged by any law enacted by the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw. 194. The Region or State Hluttaw shall pass a resolution when the Region or State government submits the Region or State estimated budget in accord with the prescribed procedures.

Promulgation of Law

195. (a) The Chief Minister of the Region or State shall : (i) sign and promulgate the Bills approved by the Region or State Hluttaw as law within seven days after the day of receipt in accord with the prescribed procedures; (ii) sign and promulgate the Bills approved by the Leading Body of Self-Administered Division or Self-Administered Zone as law within 14 days after the day of receipt. (b) If the Chief Minister of the Region or State does not sign and promulgate the Bill as law within the prescribed period, on the day after the completion of that period, the Bill shall become a law as if he had signed it. (c) The laws signed by the Chief Minister of the Region or State and laws which deemed to have been signed by him, shall be promulgated by the publication in the official gazette. The Law shall come into operation on the day of such promulgation unless the contrary intention is expressed.

Self-Administered Division and Self-Administered Zone Leading Bodies

196. The legislative power relating to the matters listed in the Schedule Three for respective Divisions or Zones are allotted to the Self-Administered Division or the SelfAdministered Zone Leading Bodies.

Duties, powers and rights of the representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Region or State Hluttaw

197. Duties, powers and rights of the representatives of the Pyithu Hluttaw, the Amyotha Hluttaw and the Region or State Hluttaw shall be prescribed by law.

Effect of Laws

198. The effect of laws enacted by different levels of the Hluttaw and the Leading Bodies of the Self-Administered Area is as follows : (a) if any provision of the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the Region Hluttaw, the State Hluttaw, the Leading Bodies of the Self-Administered Division or the Self-Administered Zone or, any existing law is inconsistent with any provision of the Constitution, the Constitution shall prevail; (b) if any provision of the law enacted by the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw is inconsistent with any provision of the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall prevail; (c) if any provision of the law enacted by the Leading Body of the SelfAdministered Division or the Self-Administered Zone is inconsistent with any provision of the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, the law enacted by the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw shall prevail; (d) if any provision of the law enacted by the Leading Body of the SelfAdministered Division or the Self-Administered Zone is inconsistent with any provision of the law enacted by the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw concerned, the law enacted by the Region Hluttaw or the State Hluttaw concerned shall prevail.

Chapter V - Executive

The Union Government

199. (a) The Executive Head of the Union is the President. (b) (i) The executive power of the Union is distributed among the Union, Regions and States. (ii) Self-Administered power is distributed among Self-Administered Areas as prescribed by the Constitution.

Formation of the Union Government

200. The Union Government shall comprise the following persons : (a) The President; (b) Vice-Presidents; (c) Ministers of the Union; (d) The Attorney General of the Union.

Formation of the National Defence and Security Council

201. The National Defence and Security Council led by the President, to enable it to discharge the duties assigned by the Constitution or any law, shall be formed with the following persons : (a) The President; (b) Vice-President; (c) Vice-President; (d) Speaker of the Pyithu Hluttaw; (e) Speaker of the Amyotha Hluttaw; (f) Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services; (g) Deputy Commander-in-Chief of the Defence Services; (h) Minister for Defence; (i) Minister for Foreign Affairs; (j) Minister for Home Affairs; (k) Minister for Border Affairs.

Powers and Functions of the President

202. The President, with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw, may : (a) designate the Ministries of the Union Government as necessary, and may make changes and additions to the ministries; (b) designate the number of the Union Ministers as necessary, and may increase or decrease the number. 203. The President shall be responsible to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. The Vice-Presidents shall be responsible to the President and also to the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw through the President. 204. The President has : (a) the power to grant a pardon; (b) the power to grant amnesty in accord with the recommendation of the National Defence and Security Council. 205. The President may, in accord with the law, have : (a) the power to confer honorary titles and awards; and (b) the power to revoke conferred honorary titles and awards. 206. The President may establish or sever diplomatic relations with foreign countries with the approval of the Pyidaungsu Hluttaw. However, in situation which requires immediate action, the President may sever diplomatic relations with any foreign country after