Treaty of Jeddah 2000
From Advocatespedia, The Law Encyclopedia
The 2000 Treaty of Jeddah resolved a border dispute between Saudi Arabia and Yemen dating back to Saudi boundary claims made in 1934.
With a view to cementing the ties of brotherhood and friendship and the links of kinship that bind the two fraternal peoples of the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, Invoking the norms and principles of the Islamic faith they share and whose foundation is cooperation for the sake of piety and godliness, Proceeding from the bonds woven by a common history based on cooperation and solidarity and on the promotion of security, peace and tranquillity, Building on the distinctive character of the brotherly relations obtaining between the leaders of the two fraternal countries, namely His Excellency President Ali Abdullah Saleh of the Republic of Yemen and his fellow leader the Custodian of the Two Holy Mosques, King Fahd Bin Abdul-Aziz Al Saud of Saudi Arabia (may God preserve them), in terms of regard, candour and commitment to every means of further enhancing and strengthening the intimate relations between the two fraternal peoples, and given their concern to devise a permanent solution to the question of the land and maritime boundaries between their two countries that will be found to be satisfactory and will be preserved by succeeding generations, present and future, with respect to both the boundaries determined by the Treaty of Taif signed by the two kingdoms in A.H. 1353, corresponding to A.D. 1934, and delimited by joint commissions in the manner set forth in the boundary reports annexed to that Treaty and to those that have yet to be delimited.
The 1927 Treaty of Jeddah was signed between the United Kingdom and Ibn Saud. It recognised the independence of Ibn Saud and sovereignty over what was then known as the Kingdom of Hejaz and Nejd. The two regions were unified into the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia in 1932. In return, Ibn Saud agreed to stop his forces from attacking and harassing neighbouring British protectorates.
The Treaty superseded the Treaty of Darin (1915).
The 1974 Treaty of Jeddah was a treaty between Saudi Arabia and United Arab Emirates. The treaty intended to resolve the Saudi Arabia – United Arab Emirates border dispute. Saudi Arabia ratified the treaty in 1993, but the UAE has not yet ratified it. The legal validity of the treaty has been questioned, since Qatar was not included in the negotiations, and the proposed settlement affects the Qatari border. However, Qatar had already reached a separate agreement on its border with Saudi Arabia in December 1965.
Agreement has been reached as follows:
Article 1:- The two contracting parties affirm that the Treaty of Taif and its annexes, including the boundary reports appended thereto, are binding and valid. They also affirm their commitment to the Memorandum of Understanding signed by the two countries on 27 Ramadan A.H. 1415 [26 February A.D. 1995]
Article 2:- The definitive and permanent boundary line between the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia shall be established as follows:
(a) This section begins at the coastal marker on the Red Sea (precisely at the sea wall, Ra's al-Mu'wajj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet) at latitude 16o 24' 14.8" north and longitude 42o 46' 19.7" east, and it ends at the Jabal al-Tha'r marker at coordinates 44o 21' 58.0" east and 17o 26' 00.0" north. The identity of the villages located along the path of the line in this section, including their tribal affiliation, shall be determined in accordance with the provisions of the Treaty of Taif and its annexes. In the event that any of the coordinates should coincide with the location of a village, the frame of reference for establishing its possession shall be its association with one of the parties and the path of the line shall be modified accordingly when boundary markers are put in place.
(b) This is the section of the boundary line which has not been delimited. The two contracting parties have agreed to delimit this section in an amicable manner. This section begins at Jabal al-Tha'r, the coordinates of which are given above, and it ends at the intersection of latitude 19 north and longitude 52 east. Detailed coordinates [of the intermediate markers] are given in annex II.
(c) This is the maritime section of the boundary. It begins at the onshore marker on the sea coast (precisely at the sea wall, Ra's al-Mu'wajj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet), the coordinates of which are specified above, and it terminates at the extremity of the maritime boundaries between the two countries. Detailed coordinates [of the intermediate points] are given in annex III.
Article 3:- 1. For the purpose of placing markers (pillars) along the boundary line beginning at the tripoint of the two countries with the Sultanate of Oman at the intersection of latitude 19 north and longitude 52 east and ending precisely at the sea wall, Ra's Al-Muvwajj Shami, Radif Qarad outlet, the coordinates of which are given in annex I and annex II, the two contracting parties shall engage an international company to conduct a field survey of the full length of the land and maritime boundaries. The company concerned and the joint team of the two contracting parties shall adhere strictly to the distances and bearings from one point to the next and to the other specifications set forth in the boundary reports annexed to the Treaty of Taif, these provisions being binding on both parties.
2. The company concerned shall prepare detailed maps of the land boundary between the two countries, and these maps, once signed by representatives of the Republic of Yemen and the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, shall be recognized as official maps indicating the boundary between the two countries and shall be an integral part of this Treaty. The two contracting parties shall conclude an agreement on meeting the costs of work undertaken by the company engaged to erect the markers along the land boundary between the two countries.
Article 4:- The two contracting parties undertake to abide by the terms of article 5 of the Treaty of Taif as they relate to the removal of any military position located less than five kilometres from the boundary line delimited on the basis of the boundary reports annexed to the same Treaty of Taif. The boundary line that has yet to be delimited, from Jabal al-Tha'r to the point of intersection of latitude 19 north and longitude 52 east, shall be governed by the terms of annex IV to this Treaty.
Article 5:- This Treaty shall enter into force following its ratification in accordance with the procedures in effect in each of the contracting countries and the exchange of instruments of ratification by them.
• After more than 65 years of sporadic conflict, Yemen and Saudi Arabia have signed a border deal which promises to bring a new era of improved relations between the two countries. A statement by the official Yemeni news agency, Saba, issued as MEI went to press, described the deal as a "final and permanent treaty for marine and land borders".
• No details were given, but it said it the agreement incorporated the line adopted by the 1934 Ta’if treaty, which defined the western end of the border, and also covered the remaining (major) part of the 1,500-mile border which has not previously been defined.
• One so-far-unexplained aspect of the deal is that neither President Salih nor Prince Abdullah put their name to the document. It was signed by the two foreign ministers: Abd al-Qadr Bagammal for Yemen and Prince Saud Al-Faisal for Saudi Arabia.
• The border quarrel had become an almost permanent feature of Saudi-Yemeni relations which have been characterised by mutual suspicion and claims of interference in each other’s internal affairs.
• Whether the border was a root cause of the friction or merely a symptom of it remains to be seen. Yemen has previously attributed many of its internal problems - ranging from kidnappings to the 1994 north-south war - to machinations by the Saudis. Now, either those problems will diminish or Yemen will place the blame elsewhere.
The International Boundary Treaty (Treaty of Jeddah) Concluded between the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia and the Yemeni Republic on June 12, 2000
• SAUDI ARABIA and UNITED ARAB EMIRATES Agreement on the delimitation of boundaries dated 21 August 1974, United Nations. Accessed April 4, 2012.
• Habeeb, William Mark (2012). The Middle East in Turmoil: Conflict, Revolution and Change. Greenwood Press. p. 33. ISBN 0313339147.
• Schofield, Richard (2011). "The Crystallisation of a Complex Territorial Dispute: Britain and the Saudi-Abu Dhabi Borderland, 1966". Journal of Arabian Studies. 1 (1). doi:10.1080/21534764.2011.576047. Retrieved 22 February 2015.